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Ophthalmology -FA > retina pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in retina pathology Deck (60)
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1

Ophthalmoscopy (funduscopy) - how to identify left and right eye

the macula is in the center of the image, and the optic disk is located towards the nose

2

posterior eye segment

vitreous chamber

3

The central retinal artery branches off the

ophthalmic artery (branch of ophthalmic artery)

4

Papilledema

optic disc swelling due to increased intracranial pressure (2ry to mass effect) --> usually bilateral

5

intracranial pressure - normal range

at rest, is normally 7–15 mmHg for a supine adult.

6

intracranial pressure causes (on vision)

enlarged blind spot

7

blind spot - definition

small portion of the visual field of each eye that corresponds to the position of the optic disk. There are no photoreceptors, and, therefore, there is no image detection in this area

8

Papilledema - fundoscopic exam

elevated optic disc with blurred margins

9

Retinitis - pathophysiology / associated with

retinal edema and necrosis leading to scar
- immunosuppression

10

causes of Retinitis

often viral (CMV, HSV, HZV) but can be bacterial or parasitic

11

Central retinal artery occlusion - clinical presentation and management

acute, PAINLESS monocular vision
management: evaluate for embolic source (carotid artery, atherosclerosis, cardiac vegetations, patent foramen ovale

12

Central retinal artery occlusion - fundoscopic exam

retina cloudy with attenuated vessels and cherry red spot at fovea

13

Retinitis pigmentosa is an

inherited retinal degeneration

14

Retinitis pigmentosa - clinical presentation

1. painless, progressive vision loss beginning with night blindess
2. tunnel blindness

15

Retinitis pigmentosa - onset of vision loss

progressive vision loss beginning with night blindess
tunnel blindness

16

Retinitis pigmentosa - beginning with night blindess (why)

robs are affected first

17

Retinitis pigmentosa - fundoscopic exam

bone spicule - shaped around macula

18

Retinal vein occlusion - pathophysiology

blockage of central or branch retinal vein due to compression from nearby arterial atherosclerosis

19

Retinal vein occlusion - fundoscopic exam

Retinal hemorrhage and venous engorgement, edema in affected area

20

retinal detachment - pathophysiology

separation of neurosensory layer of retina from outermost pigmented epithelium --> degeneration of photoreceptors --> vision loss

21

neurosensory layer of retina

photoreceptor layers with robs and cones

22

pigmented epithelium layer of retina - function

1. shields excess light
2. supports retina

23

separation of neurosensory layer of retina from outermost pigmented epithelium --> ...

degeneration of photoreceptor --> vision loss

24

retinal detachment - may be secondary to

1. retinal breaks
2. diabetic traction
3. inflammatory effusions

25

retinal detachment 2ry to diabetic traction (mechanims)

scar tissue from neovascularization shrinks, causing the retina to wrinkle and pull from its normal position

26

retinal breaks are more common in

1. patients with myopia
2. history of head trauma

27

retinal breaks - management

surgical emergency

28

retinal breaks are often preceded by

1. posterior vitreous detachment (FLASHES AND FLOATERS)
2. eventual monocular loss of vision like a curtain drawn and down

29

Eye floaters are

small moving spots that appear in your field of vision.

30

diabetic retinopathy

retinal damage due to chronic hyperglycemia