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Flashcards in glaucoma drugs Deck (30)
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1

glaucoma drugs - classes

1. α-agonists 2. β-blockers 3. diuretics
4. cholinomimetics 5. Prostagladin

2

glaucoma drugs - α agonists - drugs (and receptors)

epinephrine (α1)
Brimonidine (α2)

3

glaucoma drugs - α1-agonists - do not use in (and why)

in closed - angle glaucoma
Mydriasis

4

glaucoma drugs - α-agonists - side effects

1. Mydriasis (α1 epinephrine) 2. Blurry vision 3. ocular hyperemia
4. foreign body sensation 5. ocular pruritus
6. ocular allergic reaction

5

glaucoma drugs - α-agonists - action on glaucoma

α2 --> decrease aqueous humor synthesis via inhibition of nonpigmented epithelium on ciliary body
α1 --> vasoconstriction --> decrease aqueous humor synthesis

6

glaucoma drugs - β-blockers - action on glaucoma

decrease aqueous humor synthesis via inhibition of nonpigmented epithelium on ciliary body

7

glaucoma drugs - β-blockers - side effects

no papillary or vision changes

8

glaucoma drugs - β-blockers - drugs

1. timolol
2. betaxolol
3. carteolol

9

glaucoma drugs - diuretics drug

acetazolamide

10

glaucoma drugs - acetazolamide mechanism of action

carbonic anhydrase inhibitor --> decreases aqueous humor synthesis via inhibition of nonpigmented epithelium on ciliary body

11

glaucoma drugs - acetazolamide side effects

no papillary or vision changes

12

glaucoma drugs - prostagladin (PGF2a) - drugs

1. Bimatoprost
2. latanoprost

13

PGF2a drug for glaucoma - mechanism of action

increases outflow of aqueous humor through the Uveoscleral outflow

14

glaucoma drugs - PGF2a - side effect

1. Darkness of color of iris (browning)
2. eyelash growth

15

glaucoma drugs - cholinomimetics are divided to (and which drugs)

direct --> a. pilocarpine b. carbachol
indirect --> a. physostigmine c. echothiophate

16

glaucoma drugs - cholinomimetics side effects

1. Miosis
2. cyclospasm

17

cyclospasm?

contraction of cilliary muscle

18

glaucoma drugs - cholinomimetics action on glaucoma

increase outflow of aqueous humor via contraction of ciliary muscle and opening of trabecular meshwork (M3)

19

glaucoma - in emergencies - drug? (and why)

pilocarpine
very effective at opening meshwork into canal Schlemm

20

glaucoma - drugs that decrease aqueous humor synthesis

1. α - agonists
2. β - blockers
3. acetazolamide

21

glaucoma - drugs that increase aqueous humor outflow

1. cholomimetics
2. Prostagladins

22

cilliary muscle contraction - receptors

M3

23

splinter muscle of iris - receptor

M3

24

dilator muscle of iris

a1

25

ciliary epithelium - function (and receptors)

produces aqueous humor (β receptors)

26

Conjunctivitis - treatment

bacterial --> antibiotics
viral --> self resolving

27

nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy - treatment

1. blood sugar control
2. macular laser

28

treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy

1. anti - VEGF (bevacizumab)
2. peripheral retinal photocoagulation
3. surgery

29

Central retinal artery occlusion - management

evaluate for embolic source (carotid artery, atherosclerosis, cardiac vegetations, patent foramen ovale

30

retinal breaks - management

surgical emergency