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Flashcards in CK 2 Deck (100)
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1

intracranial pressure - normal range / can cause

at rest, is normally 7–15 mmHg for a supine adult.
- enlarged blind spot

2

blind spot - definition

small portion of the visual field of each eye that corresponds to the position of the optic disk. There are no photoreceptors, and, therefore, there is no image detection in this area

3

Retinitis - pathophysiology / associated with

retinal edema and necrosis leading to scar
- immunosuppression

4

Central retinal artery occlusion - clinical presentation and management

acute, PAINLESS monocular vision
management: evaluate for embolic source (carotid artery, atherosclerosis, cardiac vegetations, patent foramen ovale)

5

Central retinal artery occlusion - fundoscopic exam

retina cloudy with attenuated vessels and cherry red spot at fovea

6

Retinitis pigmentosa is an / clinical presentation

inherited retinal degeneration
1. painless, progressive vision loss beginning with night blindess (robs are affected first)
2. tunnel blindness

7

Retinitis pigmentosa - fundoscopic exam

bone spicule - shaped around macula

8

Retinal vein occlusion - pathophysiology

thrombosis

9

Retinal vein occlusion - fundoscopic exam

Retinal hemorrhage and venous engorgement, edema in affected area

10

retinal detachment - pathophysiology

separation of neurosensory layer (robs and cones) of retina from outermost pigmented epithelium --> degeneration of photoreceptors --> vision loss

11

retinal detachment - may be secondary to

1. retinal breaks
2. diabetic traction (scar tissue from neovascularization shrinks, causing the retina to wrinkle and pull from its normal position)
3. inflammatory effusions

12

retinal breaks are more common in

1. patients with myopia
2. history of head trauma

13

retinal breaks - management

surgical emergency

14

retinal breaks are often preceded by

1. posterior vitreous detachment (FLASHES AND FLOATERS) --> small moving spots that appear in your field of vision.
2. eventual monocular loss of vision like a curtain drawn and down

15

diabetic retinopathy - types

1. nonproliferative
2. proliferative

16

nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (mechanism)

damaged capillaries leak blood --> lipids and fluids seep into retina --> hemorrhage and macular edema

17

nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy - treatment

1. blood sugar control
2. macular laser

18

proliferative diabetic retinopathy (mechanism)

chronic hypoxia results in new blood vessels formation with resultant traction on retina

19

treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy

1. anti - VEGF (bevacizumab)
2. peripheral retinal photocoagulation
3. surgery

20

peripheral retinal photocoagulation - mechanims

uses light to coagulate tissue (energy from a strong light source is absorbed by tissue and is converted into thermal energy)

21

generally - diabetic retinopathy findings

1. hemmorrhage
2. exudates
3. microanurysms
4. vessel proliferation

22

Age-related macular degeneration

degeneration of macula

23

Age-related macular degeneration causes (symptoms)

distortion (metamorphopsia) and eventual loss of central vision

24

metamorphopsia

defective vision, with distortion of the shape of objects seen

25

Age-related macular degeneration - types and frequency

1. Dry (nonexudative) - >80%
2. Wet (exudative) - 10-15%

26

Dry (nonexudative) Age-related macular degeneration (mechanims)

deposition of yellowish extracellular material in and between Bruch membrane and retinal pigment epithelium (drusen) with GRADUAL decreasing in vision

27

Drusen are (and composed by)

- deposition of yellowish extracellular material in and beneath Bruch membrane and retinal pigment epithelium - composed by lipids, immune and inflammatory related proteins, amyloid associated

28

prevent progression of Dry (nonexudative) Age-related macular degeneration with

1. multivitamin supplements
2. antioxidant supplements

29

Wet (exudative) Age-related macular degeneration (mechanims)

RAPID loss of vision due to bleeding 2ry to choroidal neovasvularization

30

treat Wet (exudative) Age-related macular degeneration (mechanims) with

1. anti-VEGF (RANIBIZUMAB)
2. Laser