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Ophthalmology -FA > CK > Flashcards

Flashcards in CK Deck (99)
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1

Refractive errors - types / explain

1. Hyperopia --> Eye too short
2. Myopia --> eye too long
3. Astigmatism --> abnormal curvature of cornea
4. Presbyopia --> Age - related impaired accommodation (focusing on near objects), 1ry due to decreased lens elasticity

2

uveitis is divided to (according the place) (AKA)

1. anterior uveitis (iritis)
2. intermediate uveitis: pars planitis
3. posterior uveitis (choroiditis and/or retinitis)

3

Uveitis may have - symptoms/findings

1. hypopyon (accumulation of pus in anterior chamber)
2. conjuctival redness

4

Uveitis is associated with

systemic inflammatory disorders:
1. Sarcoidosis 2. Rheumatoid arthritis 3. juvenile arthritis
4. Bechet disease 5 . HLA-B27

5

optic disc is

the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye.
(optic nerve head)

6

The optic disc is shaped like a (and why)

doughnut with a pink neuroretinal rim and a central white depression called the physiologic cup.

7

Glaucoma - characteristic cupping

thinning of outer rim of the optic nerve head versus normal

8

open angle glaucoma is associated with

1. increased age
2. African american race
3. family history

9

open angle glaucoma is divided to

1. primary
2. secondary

10

causes of primary open glaucoma

unclear

11

causes of secondary open glaucoma

blocked trabecular meshwork from
a. WBC (eg uveitis)
b. RBCs (eg vitreous hemorrhage)
c. retinal elements (eg retinal detachment)

12

primary closed/closed narrow angle - mechanism

enlargement or forward movement of lens against central iris (pupil margin) --> obstruction of normal aqueous flow through pupil --> fluid builds up behind iris, pushing peripheral iris against cornea and impeding flow through trabecular meshwork

13

secondary closed/narrow angle - mechanism

hypoxia from retina disease (diabetes mellitus, vein occlusion) --> vasoproliferation in iris that contracts the angle

14

chronic closed/narrow angle - symptoms and findings

1. often asymptomatic
2. damage to optic nerve
3. damage to peripheral vision

15

acute closed/narrow angle - mechanism

elevated intraocular pressure pushes iris forward --> angle closes abruptly

16

acute closed/narrow angle - do not give (and why)

epinephrine because of its mydriatic effect

17

acute closed/narrow angle - symptoms and signs

1. very painful
2. red eye
3. sudden vision loss
4. halos around halos
5. rock hard eye
6. frontal headache

18

Conjunctivitis - types and presentation (and MC)

1. Allergic --> itchy eyes
2. Bacterial --> pus
3. Viral (MC)--> sparse mucous discharge, swollen preauricular node

19

Viral vs bacterial conjunctivitis - transmissible

Virus easy
Bacterial poorly

20

Viral vs bacterial conjunctivitis - adenopathy

Only virus (preauricular)

21

characteristics of Viral conjunctivitis

bilateral, Watery discharge, easily transmissible, normal vision. itchy, preauricular adenopathy, no specific therapy

22

characteristics of Bacterial conjunctivitis

unilateral, purulent + thick discharge, poorly transmissible, normal vision, not itchy, no adenopathy, topical antibiotics

23

red eye (opthalmologic emergencies) - types and presentation

1. conjunctivitis: itchy eyes with discharge
2. uveitis autoimmune disease
3. glaucoma: pain
4. abrasion: trauma

24

red eye (opthalmologic emergencies) - types and eye findings

1. conjunctivitis: normal pupil
2. uveitis: photophobia
3. glaucoma: fixed dilated pupil
4. abrasion: like sand in the eye

25

red eye (opthalmologic emergencies) - types and most accurate test

1. conjunctivitis: clinical diagnosis
2. uveitis: slit lamp examination
3. glaucoma: tonometry
4. abrasion: fluorescein stain

26

red eye (opthalmologic emergencies) - types and best initial therapy

1. conjunctivitis: topical antibiotics
2. uveitis: topical steroids
3. glaucoma: acetazolamide, mannitol, pilocarpine, laser trabeculoplasty
4. abrasion: no specific therapy, patch not clearly beneficial

27

glaucoma treatment if medical treatment fails

laser trabeuloplasty

28

it can precipitate closed angle glaucoma

walking into a dark rook can precipitate pain because of pupillary dialation (SOS)

29

acute angle-closure glaucoma - the diagnosis is confirmed by

tonometry

30

keratitis - definition / presentation

infection of cornea
the eye may be very red, swollen and painful, but do not use steroids (make it worse)