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Flashcards in Revision Deck (47):
1

Nitrifying bacteria?

Oxidise ammonia into nitrites and then nitrates

2

Nitrification?

The process undertaken by nitrifying bacteria by which they oxidise ammonia into nitrites and then nitrates

3

Nitrogen fixing bacteria?

Convert nitrogen gas into ammonia which can be used to make in proteins

Nitrogen fixing bacteria are found free living or in the root nodules of leguminous plants

4

De-nitrifying bacteria?

Use nitrites as an energy source and give out nitrogen gas as a result

5

Use of nitrates in plants?

Making proteins/amino acids

6

Deficiency without nitrates in plants?

Stunted growth

7

Use of phosphates in plants?

Making DNA

8

Deficiency without phosphates in plants?

Stunted root growth
Leaves turn purple

9

Use of Potassium in plants

Needed for enzymes of respiration and photosynthesis to work

10

Deficiency without potassium in plants?

Leaves turn yellow with dead spots

11

Use of magnesium in plants?

Making chlorophyll

12

Deficiency without magnesium in plants?

Leaves turn yellow

13

Where are enzymes found?

Pancreas and small intestine

14

Purpose of amylase/carbohydrase

Breaks starch down into glucose

15

Purpose of protease

Breaks proteins down into polypeptides and then amino acids

16

Purpose of lipase

Breaks lipids down in to glycerol and other fatty acids

17

Use of vitamin A

Protects surface of eye

18

Where is vitamin A found?

Fish liver oil

19

Use of vitamin C

Sticks together cell lining surfaces

20

Where is vitamin C found

Fruit and veg

21

Use of vitamin D

Provides bones with calcium and phosphates

22

Where is vitamin D found?

Cream and butter

23

What is calcium used for?

Making bones and teeth

24

Where is calcium found?

Dairy, fish, bread

25

Use of iron

Makes haemoglobin

26

Where is iron found

Red meat, liver, eggs

27

Test and result for starch?

Add iodine solution
Goes from reddish-brown to blue-black

28

Test and result for glucose?

Add Benedicts reagent and heat
Goes orange-red

29

What are diploids?

Body cells

30

What are haploids?

Sex cells

31

What is mitosis?

Cell division of diploids creating two cells with identical sets of chromosomes

32

What is meiosis?

Cell division creating 4 haploid cells with half e original number of chromosomes

33

When is mitosis used? (4 marks)

Growth, repair, cloning, asexual reproduction

34

What is an ecosystem

A distinct, self supporting system of organisms interacting with each other and their physical environment

35

What is a population

All the organisms of a particular species living in an ecosystem at a particular time

36

What is a community

All the populations of living organisms living in an ecosystem at a particular time

37

What is a habitat

A place where specific organisms live (my ecosystem is cambridge but my habitat is my home)

38

What are producers

Things that produce food by photosynthesis

39

What are consumers

Things that eat plants or other animals to get their energy

40

What are decomposers

Organisms such as bacteria and fungi that break down and decompose dead material and waste products to recycle nutrients

41

What are quadrats

Things used to sample the distribution of organisms in their habitats, and to estimate the size of an organism in different areas

42

What 3 conditions do plant embryos need to germinate?

Water
Oxygen
Warmth

43

What is follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)?
What does it do?

Is a pituitary hormone

Stimulates the production of the ova in the follicles of the ovary

Stimulates the release of oestrogen by the ovaries

44

What is Leutinising hormone (LH)?
What does it do?

It is a pituitary hormone

Stimulates the release of the mature egg from the ovaries

Stimulates the release of progesterone by the ovaries

45

What is oestrogen?

What does it do?

It is an ovary hormone

Stimulates the build up of the lining of the uterus

Stimulates a reduction in the release of FSH by the pituitary and an increase in the release of LH

46

What is progesterone?

What does it do?

It is an ovary hormone

Stimulates the development of the blood vessels in the lining of the uterus

If fertilisation occurs, progesterone will keep the pregnancy going

47

What are the 4 roles of the placenta?

1- take oxygen & food from mother to foetus

2-to CO2 from foetus to mother

3- anchor the foetus to the uterus

4- secrete progesterone which keeps pregnancy going