Rheumatological Lung Disease Prep Ppt (Nichols) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Rheumatological Lung Disease Prep Ppt (Nichols) Deck (53)
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1
Q

What are the 2 forms of systemic sclerosis?

A

interstitial lung dz and vascular dz

2
Q

Describe the sclerodermal lung

A
  1. interstitial dz starting as nonspecific intersitial pneumonia PATTERN –> interstitial fibrosis
  2. concentric arterial thickening (fibrosis)
3
Q

What are the mediators of sclerodermal lung pathology?

A

IL-8, TNF, MIF1-alpha, RANTES, endothelin-1, TGF-beta

4
Q

T cell recuiter and activator assc with sclerodermal lung

A

RANTES

5
Q

vasoconstrictor and assc with sclerodermal lung

A

endothelin-1

6
Q

what does MIF1-alpha do?

A

promotes neutrophil chemotaxis

7
Q

What part of lung is most affected by sclerodema and how do the affect areas appear on CT

A

favors bases (posterior and peripherally)

ground glass then reticuar infiltrate

8
Q

Cells that mediate damage in scleroderma lung

A

lymphocytes and macrophages –> fibroblasts

9
Q

Apparently scleroderma lung looks very similar to UIP, so how is it distinguished?

A

in scleroderma all areas of the lung are in the same phase (i.e. temporal homogeneity)

10
Q

concentric arterial thickening in sclerodermal lung can cause…

A

PAH and cor pulmonale

11
Q

What is CREST syndrome?

A

limited systemic sclerosis WITHOUT interstitial lung dz

*is anti-centromere Ab +

12
Q

Signs and symptoms of systemic sclerosis lung dz

A

symp: dyspnea and dry cough
signs: velcro crackles (esp at bases)

13
Q

How is systemic clerodermal lung dz diagnosed?

A

anti-Scl70 (DNA topo) Ab +
dyspnea, dry cough, velcro crackles
sing, esophagus, and renal amifestations of SS

14
Q

What organs (other than lungs) are involved in systemic sclerosis?

A

skin, esophagus, kidneys

15
Q

How does SS lung dz affect PFTs and DLCO?

A

restrictive pattern:
dec DLCO
dec compliance = dec volumes

16
Q

What is the treatment for sclerodermal lung dz? How is this different that non-specific intersitial pneumonia?

A

cyclophosphamide and NO serterids
(remember, NSIP responded to steriods)

**steroids may cause renal problems

17
Q

prognosis of SS? What usually kills them?

A

12 yrs after Dx

60% die from scleroderma lung dz

18
Q

Lupus sucks, so there are 5 ~lung dz that can be going on at once in these poor people, what are they?

A
  1. pleuritis
  2. acute lupus pneumonitis
  3. NSIP (NOT pattern, actual dz)
  4. pulm vascular dz (concentric arterial thickening and thromboemboli)
  5. shrinking lung syndrome
19
Q

Most common pulm manifestation of lupus?

A

pleuritis

*often asymptomatic

20
Q

Lupus pleuritis is typically ____ and may or may not be assc with ____

A

fibrinous

serosanguinous exudative pleural effusions (usually small and bilateral)

21
Q

What can be found in the plural fluid of pts with lupus pleuritis

A

lymphocytes and anti-ANA Abs

22
Q

3 characteristics of acute lupus pneumonitis

A
  1. rare
  2. form of ARDS/ALI (diffuse alveolar damage)
  3. +/- diffuse hemorrhage
23
Q

Acute lupus pneumonitis symptoms and signs:

How does this appear on CT?

A

think ARDS:

symp: dyspnea, cough, fever
signs: fever, wet pulm crackles

CT: diffuse ground glass

24
Q

How is NSIP with lupus different than NSIP in SS?

A

in lupus you treat with steriods bc it is the actualy dz not just the pattern

25
Q

What are the 2 types of pulm vascualr dz seen in lupus pts?

A
  1. concentric arterial thickening

2. pulm thromboembolism (assc with lupus anticoag/anti-phospholipid Abs)

26
Q

Pulmonary artery webs,strands of fibrous tissue, spanning the lumen

A

old (organized) pulmonary emboli

27
Q

what causes shrinking lung syndrome in lupus?

A

diaphragm weakness

28
Q

What is the criteria for shrinking lung syndrome

A
  1. dyspnea
  2. small liungs on CXR
  3. dec DLCO
  4. restrictive PFTs (low vol)
29
Q

lupus lung dz that is usually self-limited

A

shrinking lung syndrome

30
Q

pleuropulm dz in pts with RA is more common in …

A

men and smokers

31
Q

What are the types of pleuropulm dz in RA

A
  1. pleuritis +/- fibrinous pleural effusion
  2. fibrosing interstitial lung disease (UIP or NSIP)
  3. follicular bronchiolitis
  4. obliterative bronchiolitis
  5. organizing pneumonia
  6. acute lung injury
  7. pulmonary hemorrhage
  8. rheumatoid nodules
32
Q

What microscopic findings are assc with RA related dz?

A

abundant lymphocytes and germinal centers

33
Q

Signs and symptoms of interstitial lung dz in RA

A
  • exertional dyspnea
  • velcro crackles
  • dec DLCO
34
Q

How is ILD in RA different than SS and lupus?

A

RA is UIP pattern and is temporally heterogenous (SS and lupus is NSIP and SS is temp homo)

  • areas of inflam only (early)
  • areas of fibrosis (late)
  • mixed (intermediate)
35
Q

What part of the lung does ILD in RA affect?

A

UIP is more SEVER in periph and lower lobes

36
Q

microcysts containing mucus =

A

honeycomb lung in RA

*lower lobe and periph inc severity

37
Q

treatment for
follicular bronchiolitis
obliterative bronchiolitis
organizing pneumonia

A

steroids
NOT steroids
steroids

38
Q

RA + obstructive pattern PPTs (inc lung vol)

A

obliterative bronchiolitis

39
Q

RA + acute onset of fever and alveolar infiltrates

A

organizing pneumonia

40
Q

rim of palisading histiocytes, basophilic debris and surrounding fibrosis, lymphocytes, macrophages and multinucleated giant cells surroundign large area of necrosis

A

rheumatoid nodule

41
Q

What is used to treat RA that has an adverse effect of causing pneumonitis

A

MTX

42
Q

pathophys of MTX mediated pneumonitis

A

cytotoxicity causes DAD or hypersensitivity

–> chronic interstitial pneumonia similar to UIP

43
Q

How does MTX pulm toxicity present?

A
  • subacute (w/in 4 weeks of starting therapy)
  • dyspnea, cough, fever
  • bilateral pulm crackles
44
Q

How do you treat MTX pulm toxicity?

A

steroids

45
Q

There are other therapies for RA that also cause pulm toxicity. What are these drugs and what pulm toxicity do they cause?

A
  1. gold: ALI or chronic interstitial pneumonia
  2. Penicillamine: alveolar hemorrhage
  3. anti-TNF-alpha: interstitial pneumonia
46
Q

Polymyositis/dermatomyositis-associated

lung disease that is ~ specific to it

A
  1. ILD + organizing pneumonia
  2. consolidation on CT
  3. resp failure from muscle weakness
  4. aspiration pneumonia from muscle weakness
  5. part of anti-synthetase syndrome (myositis + arthritis + lung dz)
47
Q

myositis is assc with

A

MALIGNANCY

48
Q

histopathology seen with sjogren’s

A

NSIP with…

  1. lymphoid follicles (germinal centers)
  2. is bronchiolocentric
  3. MORE LYMPHOCYTES
  4. macrophages and multinucleated giant cells
49
Q

specific features of lung dz in sjogren’s pts

A
  1. involves airways
  2. get xerotrachea and xerobronchea
  3. loss of submucosal gland secretion –> relentless dry cough
  4. bronchial hyper-responsivemess ~COPD
50
Q

clues that a sjogren;s pt has lymphoma

A
  1. CT scan (nodularity and cysts)
  2. lung biopsy (no follicles, macrophages, or multinucleated giant cells)
  3. mediastinal LAD
  4. pleural effusion
51
Q

How is pulm infection in rheumatology pts different than rheumatological lung dz (general concepts)

A

rheum lung dz is rarely acute and rarely nodular

52
Q

Acute lung dz in rheum pt is more likely …

A

infectious

53
Q

Nodular lung dz in rheum pt is more likely

A

infectious or neoplastic