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What is a hazard?

Anything that is an actual or potential danger


What is the system of car control?

The system of car control is a way of approaching and negotiating hazards that is methodical, safe and leaves nothing to chance. It involved careful observation, early anticipation and planning, and a systematic us of the controls to maintain your vehicles stability in all situations.

The system of car control increases your safety in a constantly changing driving environment by giving you time to react to hazards.



Take. Use and Give Information.


The purpose of the plan?

To put you...

In the correct position
At the correct speed
With the correct gear engaged
At the correct time

In order to negotiate hazards safely and efficiently


Safe stopping distance rule

Always drive so you can stop safely within the distance you can see to be clear on your own side of the road


When is a moving vehicle most stable?

When it's weight is evenly distributed, it's engine is just pulling without increasing road speed, and it is travelling in a straight line.


The tyre grip trade off

If more tyre grip is used for braking or accelerating, there is less available for steering. And view versa.


What affects the tyre grip?

Braking, steering and accelerating alter the vehicles balance and tyre grip


Acceleration sense

The ability to vary vehicle speed in response to changing road or traffic conditions by accurate use of the accelerator, so that you use the brakes less or not at all.

This uses less fuel, causes less wear on the tyres and reduces carbon emissions


Why is the main effect of the gears?

To transform engine revs into usable power


Low gears have greater turning power which affects tyre grip.

The greater the turning power the more likely that the tyres will lose grip.

In slippery conditions use a higher gear so you have more tyre grip


Why shouldn't you change gear when cornering?

It destabilises the vehicle and requires you to take one hand off the steering wheel


Advantage to abs?

It gives you some steering control during emergency braking. It helps steering while braking.


Accurate steering requires?

Good observation, anticipation and planning


What does the limit point give you?

A systematic way of judging the correct speed to use through a bend


What is the limit point?

The furthest point to which you have an uninterrupted view of the road surface

This is where the right hand edge of the road appears to meet the left hand edge in be distance


Where is thelimit point on a left hand bend?

Where the edge of the road meets the central white line (or centre of the road if no white line)


What are the factors that affect/determine your vehicles ability to corner?

The specification as condition of the vehicle, inc tyres

Your speed

The amount of steering you apply

The amount of acceleration or braking

The slope across the road surface (camber and super elevation)

The road surface and how the weather has affected its grip


How does a camber affect your steering on a left hand bend?

It increases the effect of your steering as the road slopes down in the direction of the turn


How does a camber affect your steering on a right hand bend?

If reduces the affect of steering as he road slopes away from the direction of the turn


What is super elevation?

Where the whole width of the road is banked up towards the outside edge of the bend, making the slope favourable for cornering in both directions


What are the principles of cornering?

Make sure the vehicle is in the correct position on the approach to the corner

Travel at the correct speed for the corner

Be in the correct gear for that speed

Use the accelerator to maintain a constant speed through the bend

Be able to stop safely in the distance you can see to be clear on your own side of the road


What is the following position?

2 second rule

Keep a safe distance behind the vehicle in front of you


How does distance (2 second rule) increase your safety?

Gives you a good view of what is happening on the road ahead - you can increase your vie walking both sides by a slight change of position

You can stop your vehicle safely if the driver in front brakes firmly without warning

You can extend your braking distance so that the driver behind has more time to react

You can see when it's safe to move into overtaking position

In wet weather you get less spray from the vehicle in front


Front wheel and rear wheel drive - how can affect steering?

Front wheel drive - under steer (tendency to turn less)

Rear wheel drive - over steer (tendency to turn more)

...In response to a given turn of the steering wheel.


Tiredness - when do our reactions tend to be slower?

In the morning


Between what times is the greatest risk of tiredness related collisions?

11pm - 6am


When should you use fog lights?

When visibility is reduced to 100 metres or less


When overtaking at night, when should you put on full beam?

When you are alongside the vehicle you are overtaking


How can you reduce dazzle from oncoming cars headlights at night?

Look towards the nearside edge of the road and reduce your speed.

If you are dazzled then slow down or stop if necessary


What can help you identify curves and the direction of the curves in the road at night?

Roadside market posts that reflect off your headlights

Reflective studs in the road

cats eyes - the more cats eyes there are in the centre of the road, the more hazardous the road

White paint - the more paint the more hazardous the road is.

Brake lights on the vehicle in front of you


How do different cats eyes spacing differ in central white line markings?

Centre lines - one cats eyes spaced in every other one

Hazard lines - one cats eye in every gap

Double white lines - twice as many cats eyes as there are in hazard lines


What is a micro climate?

Areas where frost or wet patches can linger even when they have disappeared elsewhere..


-Valley bottoms
-Areas of shadow cast by trees or buildings
-Shaded hillsides or slopes
-Bridge surfaces (as they are exposed on all sides)
-patchy fog


On road signs with more than 1 hazard sign on them, which is the hazard closest to you?

The one at the top


OUR - making best use of road signs?



Observation links:

Cluster of lampposts?
Single lamppost ?
No gap in bank of trees ahead?

Cluster - probable roundabout ahead

Single - look out for exit point of a junction

No gap in trees - look out for road curve to left or right


Driving smoothly can reduce fuel consumption by?


And it reduces wear and tear


Control of your vehicle is dependant on what?

The grip between your tyres and the road


Tyre pressure can affect what

Stability - under inflated tyres defect stability and also increases rolling resistance and fuel consumption


What is tyre grip trade off?

If more tyre grip is used for braking then there is less available for steering and vise versa.

The patch of tyre is contact with the road is about the same size as a hand (this can vary with size of vehicle and width of tyres)


What affects the load between the wheels and therefore the vehicles balance?

Braking steering and accelerating


When cornering /braking /accelerating etc where does the weight of the vehicle shift to?

The outside of the curve

If cornering and braking then the weight shifts to the outside of the curve and to the front

If cornering and accelerating the weight shifts to the outside of the curve and to the back

Accelerating - weight shifts to back

Braking - weight shifts to front


Definition of acceleration sense?

The ability to vary vehicle speed in response to changing road or traffic conditions by accurate use of the accelerator, so that you use the brakes less or not at all.

This uses less fuel, causes less wear and tear in tyres and reduces carbon emissions


What happens to our speed if you keep the same pressure on the accelerator as you go into an around a bend?

You will lose road speed


When should you use maximum acceleration through the gears?

If there is a pressing need and if the road surface and conditions are safe


Low gear = ? revs / speed?

High gear = ? Revs / speed?

Low gear - Engine can rev more freely, allowing vehicle to accelerate rapidly and climb slopes. Also restrains speed when descending a slope.

High gear - lower revs deliver more speed but less ability to accelerate or climb slopes

Intermediate gears allow progress from one extreme to the other


How does the greater turning power of low gears affect tyre grip?

The Greater the turning power the more likely the tyres will lose grip


High or low gear for slippery conditions?



When does engine braking (using acceleration sense) allow you to lose speed in conditions where normal braking might lock the wheels?

On slippery roads.

It is also useful on long descents


What should normal braking be?

Progressive and increased steadily


Tapered braking ?

Gently take up the initial free movement of the pedal

Increase the pressure progressively as required

Relax pedal pressure as road speed is lost

Release pedal just before stopping to avoid jerking


Stopping distance you should allow on narrow and single track lanes?

Twice the overall distance you can see to be clear


Overall stopping distance?

Thinking distance + braking distance


Thinking distance?

The distance travelled in the time between first observing the need for action and acting.

Actual thinking distance varies according to speed of vehicle, your physical and mental condition, your attentiveness and whether or not you are expecting something to hAppen.


Ou need less thinking time if you are what ?

Anticipating events and not just reacting to them


Braking distance ?

The distance you need for braking.


Braking distance depends on?

Vehicle capability, size and weight,
The gradient of the road and the condition of the road surface


What causes a skid?

Excessive speed
Coarse steering
Harsh acceleration
Excessive/sudden braking

Ie: the driver!


How does a skid happen?

When one tyre it more loses grip on the road , causing an involuntary movement of the vehicle.

This happens when the grip of the tyres on row becomes less than the force or forces acting on the vehicle


Minimise skidding?

Check tyre tread and pressure
Check vehicles brakes
Avoid skidding by using observation, anticipation and planning to adjust your driving when road surface may be slippery


Anticipate and plan - adjust your driving to the be road conditions... How?

Leave plenty of room for manoeuvre
Reduce your speed
Increase the distance you allow for stopping to match the road conditions

Use lower revs in slippery conditions to avoid wheel spin and Use higher hear when travelling at low speeds

Use principles of cornering to negotiate corners carefully

Aim to take, steer and change he's as smoothy as possible so not to brake tyre grip


Weight in the boot will alter a vehicles normal balance and tyre grip



How can you increase understeer in a front wheel drive car?

Enter bend too fast
Apply too much power in bend
Steer too sharply

You can reduce this by reducing power and / or steering


Traction control?

Controls excess wheel spin on individual wheels. Applies independent braking to the spinning wheel.

Allows you to make max use of tyre grip (eg where one wheel can grip surface as normal but another slips on ice or snow)



Incorporates conventional abs and traction control systems.

Designed to help vehicle stability by detecting when vehicle is driven to limit of its capabilities

Sensors at each wheel and a sensor that monitors the checkers rotation and pitch.. Another sensor on steering detects drivers intended path and If they sense that the vehicle is not following the intended path the system will intervene - applying brakes to individual wheels in order to correct any under it over steer.

It is crucial that you steer in be direction you want to go!


Single track lane with passing places - who has right of way?

Those travelling uphill


3 types of hazard

-Physical features (or roundabouts, junctions etc)
-The position or movement of Other road users
-Weather conditions



If not got abs on vehicle cadence is the action of pumping of brakes to help you to steer


Purpose of signals

Inform other road users of your presence or intentions

Give a signal whenever it could benefit other road users


Best position for approach to left hand junction?

Right hand junction?

Left turn - Middle of road

Right turn - towards centre line


If taking left junction that is sharp angled, obstructed view or pedestrian present, how approach corner

From further out than normal from as far back as possible


The greater the element of danger...

The higher priority you should give to it


What is the system?

The system of car control is a way of approaching and negotiating hazards that is methodical, safe and leaves nothing to chance. It involves careful observation, anticipation and planning, and a systematic use of the controls to maintain your vehicles stability in all situations


What is a double apex bend?

A bend which gets tighter as it goes round


Consider 3 things when positioning for cornering



What would you consider before overtaking?

Clear view ahead
Sufficient space
Absence of oncoming traffic
Safe return gap
Relative speed of your own vehicle and the vehicle you intend to overtake


At 70mph you travel 31 metres per second! The equivalent of 3 coach lengths



3 exemptions in law for response driving?

Excess speed limit
Contravene red light
Contravene a keep left/ right sign

Must be safe and proportionate to circumstances


What 4 things is the warning equipment primarily used for?

Provide advance warning to other road users

Help your progress through traffic

Protect officers are scene of incidents

Help in stopping motorists by identifying vehicle as a police vehicle


What is the best visual warning equipment in use in daylight?

Flashing headlamps


A roundabout is a one way system for which there is no exemption !