Flashcards in Roadcraft Chptr 3 - Info, Obs, Anticipation Deck (28)
What is the model that explains how how brain processes information you receive through your senses while you drive?
- Input (ie see a vehicle eating to put out of junction)
- Decision making
- Output (you slow down incase driver doesn't see you)
.... And so on
Most important sense for driving?
How does you brain build up a detailed mental map of your situation?
It Uses your observations along with information from your previous experiences and knowledge that are stored in your long term memory
How does your brain make decisions regarding a plan of action from your input? (What you see)
It compares this mental picture with other situations from your experiences and identifies what actions you took in the past which have been carried out safely in similar situations, it then chooses a plan of action for the current situation based on this using 'judgement'
3 types of judgement?
Anticipating how events are likely to unfold
Assessing proposed plan for risk, noting hazards and grading them based on previous experience
Assessing for space, position, speed and gear
What are the main limitations to how much info we can process at one time?
Errors of perception
What is reaction time?
The time between gathering new information about a hazard and responding to it
Equation for reaction time?
Decision time + response time
Decision time = time between sporting hazard and deciding what to do
Response time = the time it takes to start the physical response (ie brake!)
What are the 3 common errors of perception
Errors of judgement (ie sharpness of a bend)
Habit and expectancy (ie driving a road regularly can prevent you from spotting a hazard that you don't expect)
Regression effects (ie if swap vehicles regularly you could revert back to previously learned routines - ie confusing the position of the controls)
How can you improve information processing?
Regularly practice techniques and manoeuvres so you can do them accurately and efficiently
Sharpen your observation and perception and develop your situational awareness
Use the 'system' whenever you drive so you make decisions methodically and quickly
Learn to hold important info until you need them by repeating them
The ability to identify hazards at he earliest possible opportunity
What is a hazard
Anything that is an actual or potential danger.
3 types of hazard?
Physical features (junctions, bends, road surface)
The position or movements of other road users (drivers, cyclists, pedestrians)
Weather conditions (rain, ice, poor visibility)
What are the 3 stages of planning?
Decide what to do
What is the purpose of a plan?
To put you:
In the correct position
At the correct speed
With the correct gear engaged
At the correct time
In order to negotiate hazards safely and efficiently
What things does the level of danger associated with hazards vary with?
The hazards itself
How close it is to you
Wether the hazard is stationary or moving
How fast you are approaching it
What do you take into account when deciding what to do?
What you can see
What you can't see
What you might reasonable expect to happen
Which hazards pose the greatest risks
What to do if things turn out differently (contingency plans)
How to scan the environment
Use your eyes in a scanning motion that sweeps the whole environment - the far distance, middle distance, foreground, the sides and rear
What is peripheral vision?
The area of eyesight surrounding the Central area of sharply defined vision
The faster you go the further ahead you need to look - why?
Because as you drive faster the nearest point which you can accurately focus on moves away from you
Foreground detail becomes more blurred
What is the stopping distance rule?
Always drive so you can stop safely within the distance you can see to be clear on your own side of the road
Drivers who drive fast regardless of circumstances have a collision risk of 3-5 times greater than drivers who don't
What does your ability to assess 'safe' speed depend on?
Our driving capability
Your awareness of human factors (tiredness, stress etc)
Your vehicles capabilities
The road and weather conditions
It is easy to underestimate your speed due to your perception of speed depending on what factors?
Difference in detail perceived by forward and side vision
Engine, road and wind noise
The evenness of the ride
Your idea of 'normal' speed
The road - width and if closed/open
Your height off the ground
How can speed perception be distorted?
Coming off a fast road onto a slow road
Low visibility (fog/ darkness/heavy rain)
If you normally drive a vehicle that is quieter / smoother/ more powerful
Speed will seem slower on Open wide roads than on narrow or winding roads
What should you always do before you change lanes?
Make sure no one is in your blind spot
When is alertness reduced?
When driving at times when you would normally be asleep.
Also varies with time of day:
- reactions tend to be slightly slower in morning than in early evening
- there is a dip in alertness after midday meal
- the greatest risk of tiredness related collisions is between 11pm and 6am
Risk of tiredness also increased with;
- Irregular shift patterns which disrupt the bodies biological clock
- disturbed sleep patterns
- the total time spent at work (if tired from other duties before you start a journey)
- driving for long periods of time in monotonous conditions (fog, night, motorway)
- driving for longer than about 4 hours