Roadcraft Chptr 3 - Info, Obs, Anticipation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Roadcraft Chptr 3 - Info, Obs, Anticipation Deck (28)
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What is the model that explains how how brain processes information you receive through your senses while you drive?

- Input (ie see a vehicle eating to put out of junction)

- Decision making

- Output (you slow down incase driver doesn't see you)

- Feedback

.... And so on


Most important sense for driving?



How does you brain build up a detailed mental map of your situation?

It Uses your observations along with information from your previous experiences and knowledge that are stored in your long term memory


How does your brain make decisions regarding a plan of action from your input? (What you see)

It compares this mental picture with other situations from your experiences and identifies what actions you took in the past which have been carried out safely in similar situations, it then chooses a plan of action for the current situation based on this using 'judgement'


3 types of judgement?

Anticipating how events are likely to unfold

Assessing proposed plan for risk, noting hazards and grading them based on previous experience

Assessing for space, position, speed and gear


What are the main limitations to how much info we can process at one time?

Reaction time
Errors of perception
Attention span
Memory storage


What is reaction time?

The time between gathering new information about a hazard and responding to it


Equation for reaction time?

Decision time + response time

Decision time = time between sporting hazard and deciding what to do

Response time = the time it takes to start the physical response (ie brake!)


What are the 3 common errors of perception

Errors of judgement (ie sharpness of a bend)

Habit and expectancy (ie driving a road regularly can prevent you from spotting a hazard that you don't expect)

Regression effects (ie if swap vehicles regularly you could revert back to previously learned routines - ie confusing the position of the controls)


How can you improve information processing?

Regularly practice techniques and manoeuvres so you can do them accurately and efficiently

Sharpen your observation and perception and develop your situational awareness

Use the 'system' whenever you drive so you make decisions methodically and quickly

Learn to hold important info until you need them by repeating them



The ability to identify hazards at he earliest possible opportunity


What is a hazard

Anything that is an actual or potential danger.


3 types of hazard?

Physical features (junctions, bends, road surface)

The position or movements of other road users (drivers, cyclists, pedestrians)

Weather conditions (rain, ice, poor visibility)


What are the 3 stages of planning?

Anticipate hazards
Decide what to do


What is the purpose of a plan?

To put you:

In the correct position
At the correct speed
With the correct gear engaged
At the correct time

In order to negotiate hazards safely and efficiently


What things does the level of danger associated with hazards vary with?

The hazards itself

How close it is to you

Road layout

Wether the hazard is stationary or moving

How fast you are approaching it


What do you take into account when deciding what to do?

What you can see
What you can't see
What you might reasonable expect to happen
Which hazards pose the greatest risks
What to do if things turn out differently (contingency plans)


How to scan the environment

Use your eyes in a scanning motion that sweeps the whole environment - the far distance, middle distance, foreground, the sides and rear


What is peripheral vision?

The area of eyesight surrounding the Central area of sharply defined vision


The faster you go the further ahead you need to look - why?

Because as you drive faster the nearest point which you can accurately focus on moves away from you

Foreground detail becomes more blurred


What is the stopping distance rule?

Always drive so you can stop safely within the distance you can see to be clear on your own side of the road


Drivers who drive fast regardless of circumstances have a collision risk of 3-5 times greater than drivers who don't



What does your ability to assess 'safe' speed depend on?

Our driving capability
Your awareness of human factors (tiredness, stress etc)
Your vehicles capabilities
The road and weather conditions


It is easy to underestimate your speed due to your perception of speed depending on what factors?

Difference in detail perceived by forward and side vision

Engine, road and wind noise

The evenness of the ride

Your idea of 'normal' speed

The road - width and if closed/open

Your height off the ground


How can speed perception be distorted?

Coming off a fast road onto a slow road

Low visibility (fog/ darkness/heavy rain)

If you normally drive a vehicle that is quieter / smoother/ more powerful

Speed will seem slower on Open wide roads than on narrow or winding roads


What should you always do before you change lanes?

Make sure no one is in your blind spot


When is alertness reduced?

When driving at times when you would normally be asleep.

Also varies with time of day:
- reactions tend to be slightly slower in morning than in early evening
- there is a dip in alertness after midday meal
- the greatest risk of tiredness related collisions is between 11pm and 6am

Risk of tiredness also increased with;

- Irregular shift patterns which disrupt the bodies biological clock

- disturbed sleep patterns

- the total time spent at work (if tired from other duties before you start a journey)

- driving for long periods of time in monotonous conditions (fog, night, motorway)

- driving for longer than about 4 hours


What steps can you taken to manage tiredness when driving?

Adjust seat so comfortable (good posture)


Take regular breaks (1 every 2hours)

Have caffeine drink

Exercise - brisk 10min walk!