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What does the term Romanesque mean? How were ideas about the style transmitted throughout Western Europe?

-“in the manner of Romans”
-transmission of ideas by increased travel along pilgrimage route to shrines like Santiago de Compostela in Spain; consequence of crusades which passed through territories of Byzantine Empire


How did Romanesque architects learn about Roman architecture? What meanings were attached to the Roman style?

-Roman Empire= ruins of aqueducts and buildings→ arches
-Charlemagne crown HRE→ out of Dark Ages; Roman empire⇒ legends passed on generations
-architects of Charlemagne’s day looked to the arched (arcaded system) seen in Christian Roman buildings as a model
-triumph and power


What model served as the prototype for the Romanesque church? Why?

-Roman basilica was the prototype
-used for tribunals/business; rectangular; nave= both sides had rows of columns; high ceiling; windows (clerestory)
-large, awesome space
-pilgrims came to various shrine/altars within the church where they might pray to “the true cross”, bone of a martyr or tomb of a king



-central part of the church for congregation



-area where the axes of nave and transepts meet



-wings of extended small aisles


radiating chapels

-additional small chapels; chevets



-aisle surrounding the apse
-behind the altar


What is a pilgrimage? Why did people go on pilgrimages? Why were they particularly popular around the year 1000?

-pilgrimage is a journey to a sacred place; acts of piety; to ensure salvation when the end comes
-ppl went on pilgrimages to ensure their salvation when the end comes
-1000 CE= ppl were scared for the end of the world; the apocalypse


What was the main pilgrimage route in Western Europe?

-Spain; Santiago de Compostela; “Way of St. James”
-on foot across Europe to holy shrine where they believed held the bones of St James
-ppl wore a scalloped shell (symbol of St James)--> grooves represented many roads of pilgrimage
-expression of Christian devotion; believed it could purify the soul and heal (miracles) and free criminal of sin
-could meet other ppl of different class; see the world; one of the only opportunities to travel


what is a relic? What is a reliquary?

-relic= religious objects generally connected to a saint or another venerated person
-body part, finger, cloth, piece of the true cross
-reliquary= relic’s protective container


What is a barrel vault?

-exerts continuous lateral outward pressure along the walls that support the vault
-good acoustics
-outer walls had to be extra thick→ few small windows
-later replaced with groin vault


The Last Judgement, tympanum of Saint-Lazare in Autun, France

-hope after death
-fear hell
-100 CE; for pilgrims to remind them of the reason why they are on pilgrimage
-ppl were illiterate; learned stories through art
-Christ= biggest; most important, stares out in judgement; sits on a throne in heaven
-christ’s left= damned in hell; weighing of souls; St. Michael; demons= look evil
-right= heaven; Mary; angel blowing trumpet → coming of Christ; wake dead
-person with cross/shell= went on pilgrimage; believed to help them get into heaven
-bottom= dead resurrected to be judged