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Flashcards in Rome Deck (26)
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Italian peninsula was made up of who

Latins, Etruscans, Greek colonies and celts, Carthage (North Africa)


When was the founding of Rome

753 BCE (8th century)


How many origin stories did Rome have and what were they?

Rome had 2 origin stories

1. Aeneas- leader of Trojan in exile who intermarried with Latins
2. Romulus and Remes who were raised by a she wolf captured Sabine and Latin women.


What do records show about Rome

They had forums(public place)
Located near Tiber River
City peaked in 6th century BCE
Republic formed in 509 BCE when a kings son raped a married women and the husband rebelled and drafted monarchy.


Describe the early republic

-Political institutions-senate made of 100 men
-Social tension due to varying classes of people. (Patricians were aristocratic families, plebeians were other free people). Caused struggle for orders


Describe the assemblies

1. Division of population into 30 groups
2. Took responsibility for enacting laws, choosing senior magistrates and death penalty
3. Gave no special power to men of wealth and standing


What were magistrates

Legal and administrative powers


The law of the twelve tables

Set of definitions of legal rights and procedures posted in the forum on 12 tablets. Prohibited intermarriage or patricians and plebeians. Also dealt with real estate and inheritance.


Wars with Carthage

3 Punic wars (Phoenician in Latin= Punic) [264-146 BCE]

1. Rome forced enemies to make peace and took command of Sicily
2. Carthage recovered, Hannibal swore to never befriend Rome, but surrendered.
3. Fall of Carthage


What happened to Carthage after Punic wars

Carthage flourished as a Roman province


Who was polybius

A writer who promoted study of history and gave an account of why Rome was so successful in the mid 2nd century BCE.
He concluded that Rome was successful because all levels of government believed they needed to work for the good of the republic. (Tempered constitution)


Religion in Rome

-Was a private affair
-Many Gods from past Hellenistic period and their own.
-Jupiter (Zeus), Juno (Mother Earth), Minerva (wisdom), Janus( two faces of war and peace. Temple doors open in war times.


Education in Rome

-no official schools
-Girls and boys
-boys did hunting and horseback riding, Girls did House training
-used to establish elite children


The family system of Rome

Paterfamilias= man of the household ran the household

Girls entered marriage at 12, while boys were much much later


Women in Roman times

-Allowed all through household
-can speak to men
-owned property
-initiate divorce
-poorer women could have almost any job
-seen as weak minded
-poor and rich women wove and spun wool


Slavery in Rome

-# of slaves rose after Punic wars
-some had wages and could pay their freedom (city only)
-no civil rights: no vote, no property, no marriage unless told
-harsh discipline and punishment


Cato the elder

2nd century BCE
Favoured wealthier getting wealthier through Latifundia(a huge agrarian estate)

Also wrote a book called origins which was the first account of Roman history written in Latin by a Roman


City life in Rome

-Many lived in apartments
-graffiti showed urban voices
-theatres in temples with slave actors and Roman comedy


Gracchi brothers

We’re patricians concerned with inequality. 5eu and other reformers called populares tried to get land reform and grain distribution.



Pro fighters who fought to the death with weapons

-trained in schools
-most were criminals trying to gain freedom, some people volunteered
-great men sponsored gladiators
-huge form of entertainment


The social war

In 1st century BCE

-Full Roman citizens, latins (no political rights) and allies (not able to have land they conquered). Revolt of Latins who made own state of Italia
-Spartacus led slave revolt but was defeated


The first triumvirate

60 BCE

-Julius Caesar
-Macy’s Liciniuc Crassus

Wanted to rule Rome together but fell apart


Marcus Tullius Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero-“new man” because he was not a patrician but elected to magistrates as council for his talents. He didn’t go anywhere because of his bloodline. He believed in protecting the self sacrifice to Rome ideal.
*Proscribed or denounced by 2nd triumvirate


Julius Caesar

-Had the ancient ancestry
-General and a statesmen
-took command of own army who obeyed him not Rome
-established empire by 44BCE
-assassinated by Brutus and Cassius in forum causing civil war



-created the principate: the rule of one single chief or princeps
-restored temples
-didn’t hold public office but ruled tribune
-gave women autonomy (empresses)


Pax Romana

was the longest time of peace in Rome started by Octavian or Augustus