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Flashcards in Europe Revived Deck (29)
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1

Three types of social orders

-those who pray
-those who fight and rule
-those who work

2

Manorialism

Organization of agriculture with a large manor in the Center, peasant houses around and two fields and a pastor. Led by a lord and lady. Serfs could not leave the property and paid taxes on the crops they grew

3

Where does the word slave come from

From Slavic because some early ones came from that region

4

What were the duties of lords and ladies

Provide protection against raiders and thieves in their area and to offer justice when crimes took place

5

Guilds

Early unions formed for a trade. These people met regularly and paid a fee, the group obtained recognition from legal overlords.
-forbid outsiders to work on their trade
-set standards and fines for failure of such
-build halls
-apprenticeship
-journey men (day workers)

6

What did town charters restrict of nobility

Nobel’s could not live in towns because their power would influence too much

7

Role of women

-stay home and keep it immaculate
-poor women sold food in markets and spun wool

8

Communes

Ruled by officials called consuls and by assemblies of “law worthy men”.

9

What did knights have to agree to do

-bound to superior
-perform fealty
-owe 30 days a year to military service
-help with daughter dowries

In exchange for revenue, and an estate

10

William 2 duke of Normandy

-built armada and invaded England in 1066
-became William 1 of England (William the conquerer)
-surveyed whole land except London
-Domesday book

11

Henry ll

-promoted good government
-married French dukes ex wife and become duke of Aquitaine and Gascony
-French attacked but her fought them off

12

Reconquista

“Spain” wanted to push back the Muslims to reclaim their land
-won northern half which became Christian

13

Schism of 1054

-western church held the Holy Spirit proceeded through father and son, Eastern said just father.
-church split

14

Investiture Controversy

Pope Gregory Vll advocated clerical independence of secular authority. A candidate for archbishop requested appointment of Henry lV and paid a fee. Pope got mad and excommunicated Henry. Henry lV penance gave Greg the victory

15

Gregorian reform

Only pope can appoint

16

Concordat of Worms

King can recommend but Pope appoints

17

Thomas Becket

Lawyer and state official and friend of Henry ll
-Henry wanted limitations on church privileges (in court). Becket refused to sign and was murdered in cathedral. He became a saint

18

The crusades

9 in total between 11th and 13th century
-Reclaim the holy land from the Muslims and punish Jews
-pope granted indulgences to those who fought meaning they would spend less time in purgatory.

19

The peasants crusade

Only “successful” crusade
-peasants and lower knights led by Peter the Hermit

20

Second crusade

140 000 crusaders included women as well led by Eleanor of Aquitaine.

21

Third crusade

Papal bull- women forbidden from crusades
-lost 95000/100000

22

The children’s crusade

30000 French and 20000 German children went to battle unarmed. Many died before reaching the battle or were enslaved.

23

Cluny vs. Cistercians monasticism

Cluny- study
Cistercians- labour

24

Scholasticism

Philosophy and theology that merged faith with reason. Renewed interest in Greek writings

25

Hildegard of Bingen

-given to Benedictine house 8
-vision at age 5
-no formal education
-became abbess of her monastery
-poet, musician, play writer, invented language
-correspondent with pope and kings

26

Peter Abelard

-laid out yes and no of contradictory statements in the bible
-theology made into formal discipline w/ textbook “the four books of sentences”
-tutor of Héloise d’argenteuil

27

Héloïse d’argenteuil And Peter Abelard

-was a brilliant girl with a Tutor
-became pregnant
-uncle castrated Peter
-Héloïse turns down peters proposal

28

Universities

Corporation or guild to regulate teaching and learning
-professors taught until the bell
-faculties laid out texts needed to be studied to be qualified
-in Paris, theology was a central study

29

Want studies flourished in the Islamic world

Philosophy, astronomy, medicine