Flashcards in Rural - KQ1 (characteristics) Deck (43):
What is the population structure of rural areas?
- Aging population
- Young people forced to leave
- Lots of rural poverty but is scattered so overlooked
- In n. Norfolk = 7% between 21-39 and rest over 60
- Sparsely populated
What are housing characteristics of rural areas?
- Not enough affordable housing
- Council houses are being sold cheaply to residents
- People on salaries less than £20,000 cannot afford a £200,000 council house
What are the employment/income characteristics of rural areas?
- Only wealthy families and pensioners can afford housing
- People working in rural areas earn below average wages
- Limited employment in rural areas = mostly mechanisation and tourism
- Wealthy people almost always commute = turns into dormitory villages
- People on average wages cannot afford to live there
What are the services characteristics of rural areas?
- Significant lack of services
- Government cuts = fewer buses so people are stranded
- Most people are expected to have a car = expensive to take public transport
- Young people and old people who cannot drive are stranded
What are the transport/isolation characteristics of rural areas?
- Lack of services
- Most people only have few shops which they do not visit
- Need to travel far to access basic services
- For every 'active' village there is a deprived one
- Schools and work are far away so villages are dormitory during the day
- Online shopping is easier = less business for services
What are the community characteristics of rural areas?
- Made mostly of old people who moved there many years ago
- Second homes = less community
- Elderly are more 'economically active'
- Good community for older people but not sustainable as they will get too old/die
- Need young people for schools and work
What are the three types of rural change?
- Rural growth
- Extreme rural decline
- Rural change
Describe rural growth
- Villages grow when population increases
- Growth depends on layout of settlement
- New settlements built due to pressure for housing = used to be linear but is new so nucleated
- Land available on periphery growth may be by accretion = adding on of new housing around its edge
- Case study = South Cambs (Cottenham and Cambourne)
Describe extreme rural decline
- Occurs where population decline sets in and may take a variety of forms from the loss of a few families and houses or total abandonment of a whole settlement
- Overworking of land/ soil erosion/ land degradation
- Economic changes = resources less needed
- Villages drowned to create reservoirs (early C20th)
- Decline of resources eg loss of mining villages (mid-C20th)
- Changes in attitudes and opportunities
Describe rural change
- Changes in work = decline in agriculture as more machines used and more fertilisers used
- Villages may be smaller with fewer services
- Increase in rural leisure and tourism = new jobs
- Improved transport and IT links and more private car ownership
- Second home/holiday home ownership has increased
- Case study = North Norfolk
What is a high order good?
COMPARISON = goods and services people buy ;ess but spend more on
- Bigger range (people will travel further to purchase/compare models of item)
What are low order goods?
CONVENIENCE = goods and services people buy frequently
- Smaller range (people wont travel as far)
What is a range?
The maximum distance people are willing to travel in order to purchase a good or use a service
What defines a rural area?
Population of less than 10,000 people
- Lower population density
What is a site?
The land where a settlement is built (eg in a valley, by a woodland, etc)
What is a situation?
The position of a settlement in relation to the surrounding physical/human landscape
What is morphology?
The shape of the new settlement (dispersed = random // nucleated = clustered)
What is counter-urbanisation?
The movement of people away from the cities to the countryside and smaller settlements
What are the causes of counter-urbanisation?
- Better transport issues
- Retired people
- People working from home
- People working from home
- Influx of younger families
- Employees of firms located in rural areas
- Long distance commuters
- Increased car ownership
What are the push factors from urban areas?
- More expensive
- Less community
- Less space/land
- More crime
- Potentially bad social influences
- More reliant of public services
What are the pull factors to rural areas?
- More community
- More space/land
- Less crime
- Less social influence
- More community
- Less reliant on public services
What are the general characteristics of rural areas?
- Small population (<10,000)
- Low population density
- Bulk of the land not built on, being farmed/moorland
- Major industry is agriculture or forestry; primary and secondary industries
What are the processes occurring in rural areas?
- Population growth/decline
- In/out migration
- Growth/decline of a settlement
- Social change (eg by occupation)
- Rural economic change
- Land use change (eg farmland to reserve)
How does location influence the area function?
- Agriculture needs land
- Residential land used mostly in villages with low order services
- Recreation and leisure = often placed near main roads and railway stations for easy access by visitors and commuters
What are opportunities in rural areas?
Lack of economic opportunities in rural areas can lead to depopulation and decline
Accessible areas have more potential for opportunities and development
What are some economic opportunities in rural areas?
- Distance = proximity to economic centre of the region
- Transport = Accessibility to major areas by transport links (eg roads, railways and airports)
- Communication links = broadband means more people can work from home
- Workforce size and skills = some areas have a small workforce or lack skill for the type of industry (eg farming or hi-tech industries)
What are some physical opportunities in rural areas?
- Climate = suitability for agriculture
- Soil fertility
- Natural resources available (eg water, forests, minerals)
- Areas of attractive landscapes (tourism)
- Geology = hard rocks = quarries
What are some social and cultural opportunities in rural areas?
- Population type = population sizes and structures mean some areas might have either a smaller work force or an ageing population who cannot contribute to economic activity
- Cultural/historical/archaeological sites = tourism (eg World Heritage sites)
- Education = more educated = more progressive
What are some political opportunities in rural areas?
- Government policies = government and EU subsidies for agriculture
- EU and government regional development funding for rural development and economic desertification
- Relaxed planning controls = release of greenfield sites of development - more housing can be built as greenbelt is extended to make more affordable housing
- Land ownership = farm size - increase production levels
Key characteristics about North Norfolk
- Agriculture = employs 8% of working population
- Energy production = offshore wind farm at Sheringham
- Tourism = employs 22%, 6 million trips to N Norfolk in 2010 spending £333 million
- Conservation = Norfolk Broads and AONB (area of outstanding natural beauty)
What are some problems in N Norfolk?
- Remote location = 100 miles from UK core
- Poor transport network = A11 stops at Norwich, no motorways, slow train to London, far from airports
- Narrow economy
What are the physical opportunities in N Norfolk?
- 73km of coastline = AONB
- Fertile soils
- Plentiful ground water supply from chalk aquifer
- Hot summers and average rainfall = <700mm so good for arable farming
What are the social/cultural opportunities in N Norfolk?
- Architectural heritage = 81 conservation sites and 100 ancient monuments
- 8% of dwellings = 2nd homes = less rural dereliction
What are the political opportunities in N Norfolk?
- National funding available for conservation
- Core strategy in 2008
- EU funding available = can support farmers
What are the physical factors influencing development in N Norfolk?
- 73km of coastline = AONB = tourism
- High biodiversity and fertile soils
- Inland low-lying area with fertile soils due to glacial deposits= good for agriculture
- Hot summers (for Britain) and <700mm rainfall/yr (=dry) encourage arable farming and tourism in summer
- Coastline of soft glacial deposits = erosional landforms
What are the political factors influencing development in N Norfolk?
- Community in Cromer and North Walsham = town centre environmental enhancement schemes by the District and City Councils
- Core strategy for N Norfolk in 2008
What are the economic factors influencing development in N Norfolk?
- Growth in manufacture of plastic and timber products and boat building
- Growth in tourism
- Narrow economy based on agriculture, manufacturing and tourism = 84% of workforce in small businesses
- Recession in early 1990s = high unemployment, poverty, low paid jobs = income is 70% of national average due to dependence on low value sectors
- Poor communications (A11 stops in Norwich, no motorways, slow train to London, far from airports)
- House prices doubled from 2001 - 2007 = unaffordable
What are the demographic factors influencing development in N Norfolk?
- 55% of population over 45 = ageing population
- Death rate exceed birth rate
What are the social factors influencing development in N Norfolk?
- 8% of dwelling = 2nd homes = lack of community
- Strong tourism and retirement factor
- Inflated house prices (due to 2nd home buyers)
- 2nd homes empty a lot = no contribution to local businesses
- Most rural area in East of England
Key characteristics of Cottenham
- Residency = home to Cambridge workers
- Large conservation area = over 60 buildings
- Village green for community activities (eg football and fairs)
- Commercial = village shops
What are the main processes in Cottenham?
- In-migration and population growth
- Physical settlement growth = new homes built
- Suburbanisation due to proximity to Cambridge
- Less fruit production = agriculture still important though
What are some opportunities in Cottenham?
- Fertile soils = arable farming land
- Primary school = education and employment
- Cottenham Village College = sports centre and swimming pool
- Employment rate of 77%
- Continues to develop = more shops/services