Rural - KQ3 (environmental issues with rural change) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Rural - KQ3 (environmental issues with rural change) Deck (14):
1

What are the two main rural changes?

- Increasing use for leisure and recreation
- Changes in farming

2

Define rural growth

The population growth of rural areas due to in-migration by former urban residents

3

How has land use change created environmental pressure?

- Building developments = more impermeable surfaces = increased flooding
- Pastoral to arable farming = increased soil erosion during winter months when soil has little vegetation and removal of vegetation decreases biodiversity

4

What are the causes of traffic congestion and pollution?

- More traffic = more congestion = more pollution
- Increased car ownership and usage and better motorways
- Decline in public transport = more cars on the road
- Increase commuting

5

What are the problems with traffic congestion and pollution?

- More accidents and animals killed
- High fuel costs
- Traffic = pollution

6

What are the causes of land degradation and dereliction?

- Loss of population = fewer people to maintain area
- Ageing population = too poor or old to renovate property
- Decline in farming = abandoned farm houses and buildings
- High population = land degradation = declinging quality of land and declining yields (less economic activity)
- Vegetation changes = decaying shrubland replacing improves pasture

7

What are the problems with land degradation and dereliction?

- Decaying property
- Abandoned machinery and over grown fields
- Visual pollution

8

What are the causes of water pollution?

- Increased use of fertilisers in fields close to water courses = eutrophication
- Illegal dumping of material
- High rates of soil erosion = land use changes
- Accelerated run off due to more houses with flat roofs

9

What are the problems with water pollution?

- Decline in water quality
- Decrease in biodiversity in streams and rivers
- Loss in crops/plants

10

What are the reasons for rural growth?

- Retirees want a quieter life
- Cheaper housing than in urban areas
- 'Rural idyll' = beauty, space and heritage
- Community feel and activities
- IT connections = people can work from home and so live further away

11

What is the greenbelt in the UK?

Greenbelt = protected land around urban areas to stop urban growth and protect land
- Used for agriculture, leisure and nature reserves
- Prevents residential building and makes clear distinction between urban and rural areas

12

What are some pressures on the Norfolk Broads?

Norfolk Broads = finest and most extensive wetlands in UK = national park in 1988
- Sea levels expected to rise = land submerged and tourism industry, ecosystem, historical buildings and homes could be lost
- Litter/rubbish issues
- 1 million + visitors a year = pressure on area
- Boats cause river bank erosion = 130,000 boat journeys a year

13

What are some pressures in Wicken Fen?

- Removal of land from crop production
- Increased number of visitors = traffic and parking problems
- Disruption to agriculture

14

What are the key characteristics of Wicken Fen?

Wicken Fen vision = new nature reserve cover 53 km2 between Cambridge and Wicken Fen
- Hopes to be home to 7800 species
- Helps rare/endangered species
- Area managed by grazing
- Protected area is planned to be expanded