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Flashcards in S1) Infection Overview Deck (33)
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1

What is an infection?

An infection is the invasion of a host's tissues by micro organisms

2

How do people get infections?

Explain by means of a diagram

3

Identify 3 mechanisms that manifest as disease

- Microbial multiplication

- Toxins

- Host response

4

Identify and describe the modes of horizontal transmission

- Contact: direct, indirect, vectors

- Inhalation: droplets, aerosols

- Ingestion: faecal-oral route

5

What is vertical transmission?

Vertical transmission is transmission from mother to child, before or at birth  

6

Describe how microbiota can cause infection

- Microbiota are micro-organisms carried on skin and mucosal surfaces

- Normally harmless / even beneficial unless transferred to other sites

7

Identify and provide an example for the different mediums for getting infections

- Physical contact e.g. STI

- Airborne spread e.g. Chickenpox

- Animal vector e.g. mosquito for malaria

8

Describe how one can get an infection from one's environment

- Ingestion of contaminated food or water

- Inhalation of contaminated air

- Contact with contaminated surfaces 

9

State the first 5 steps that lead to disease caused by micro-organisms

- Exposure

- Adherence

- Invasion

- Multiplication

- Disemmination

10

Virulence factors are involved in the second step that leads to disease caused by micro-organisms.

Identify some examples 

Virulence factors: 

- Exotoxins – cytotoxic, AB toxins, superantigens, enzymes

- Endotoxins

11

What is the last step that leads to disease caused by micro-organisms?

Direct host cellular damage

 

12

Identify the disease determinants for pathogens

Pathogen

- Virulence factors

- Inoculum size

- Antimicrobial resistance

 

13

Identify the disease determinants for patients

Patient:

- Site of infection 

- Co-morbidities

14

What 4 overlying questions should one ask when treating a patient with a potential infection?

- Is there an infection?

- Where is the infection?

- What is the cause of the infection?

- What is the best treatment?

15

What history should one take when treating a patient with a potential infection?

- Symptoms

I. Local / systemic

II. Severity

III. Duration

- Potential exposures

16

What examination should one perform when treating a patient with a potential infection?

Examine organ dysfunction

17

Which two investigations should one perform when dealing with a patient with a potential infection?

- Specific investigations

- Supportive investigations 

18

Provide 5 examples of supportive investigations

- Full blood count

- C reactive protein

- Liver and kidney function tests

- Imaging: X-ray, ultrasound, MRI

- Histopathology

19

Which specimen types are used in bacteriology?

- Swabs

- Fluids

- Tissues

20

Identify the 5 steps involved in bacteriology

- Microscopy 

- Culture (patient and bacteria cells)

- Antimicrobial susceptibility 

- Antigen detection 

- Nucleic acid detection

21

Outline the three steps involved in virology

- Antigen detection (the virus)

- Antibody detection (the patient's response)

- Detecting viral nuclei acid (DNA or RNA)

22

Identify 4 key considerations regarding infection

- New pathogens

- Antimicrobial resistance

- Healthcare infections

- Re-labelling of established diseases as infections

23

All clinicians encounter patients with infections. 

However, identify the specialities whose primary interest is infection management

- Infectious diseases

- Medical microbiology and virology

- Genitourinary medicine

- Health protection

24

Which measurements are included in a full blood count?

- WBC count 

- WBC differential

- RBC count

- Haemoglobin 

- Haematocrit 

- Mean corpuscular volume

25

What is the white blood cell count?

WBC count is a measurement of the actual number of white blood cells per volume of blood

26

What is a white blood cell differential?

White blood cell differential looks at the types of white blood cells present: 

- Neutrophils 

- Lymphocytes

- Monocytes

- Eosinophils

- Basophils

27

What is the red blood cell count?

RBC count: is a count of the actual number of red blood cells per volume of blood

28

What is the haemoglobin measurement?

Haemoglobin measures the amount of oxygen-carrying protein in the blood

29

What is the haematocrit measurement?

Haematocrit measures the amount of space red blood cells take up in the blood (reported as a percentage / a proportion)

30

What is mean corpuscular volume?

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of your RBCs