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Flashcards in S5) Adaptive Immunity Deck (31)
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1

What are the key players in adaptive immunity?

- T cell

- Antigen presenting cells

- Tumour cells

- Pathogens (bacteria, virus, fungi)

2

Identify and describe the two types of microbes found in the body

- Extracellular microbes which replicate outside of the cell

- Intracellular microbes which replicate inside the cell 

3

Differentiate between the antigen presentation of extracellular and intracellular microbes respectively

- Extracellular microbes → humoral immunity 

- Intracellular microbes → cell-dependent immunity

4

What are the strategic locations of APC's ?

- Skin (SALT)

- Mucous membranes (BALT, NALT, GALT, GUALT)

- Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen)

- Blood circulation (plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs) 

5

How do APC's capture pathogens?

- Phagocytosis (whole microbe)

- Macropinocytosis (soluble particles)

6

Provide some examples for the different types of microbes

- Extracellular pathogens: bacteria, parasites, worms, fungi

- Intracellular pathogens: viruses, bacteria, protozoa

7

What are the components involved in humoral immunity?

- Antibodies

- Complement

- Phagocytes

8

What are the components involved in cell-dependent immunity?

- Cytotoxic T lymphocytes

- Antibodies

- Macrophages

9

Identify the different types of APC's found in the body

- Dendritic cells

- Langerhans cells

- Macrophages

- B cells

10

Where are dendritic cells found and which cells do they present to?

Location: lymph nodes, mucous membranes, blood

- Presentation: naive T cells

11

Where are Langerhans cells found and which cells do they present to?

- Location: skin

- Presentation: naive T cells

 

12

Where are macrophages found and which cells do they present to?

- Location: various tissues

- Presentation: effector T cells

13

Where are B cells found and which cells do they present to?

- Location: lymphoid tissues

- Presentation: effector and naive T cells

14

Where are Class I and Class II MHC found respectively?

- Class I molecules are found on all nucleated cells

- Class II molecules are found on dendritic cells, macrophages & B cells (APC's)

15

What does MHC stand for and what is the gene complex encoding it?

- Major Histocompatibility Complex

- Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)

16

Identify and describe two key genetic features of MHC class I and class II molecules

- Co-dominant expression – both parental genes are expressed → increase in the number of different MHC molecules

- Polymorphic genes – different alleles among different individuals → increased presentation of different antigens/microbes

17

What is the main function of MHC molecules?

- MHC class I: present peptides from intracellular microbes and are recognised by CD8+ T cells

- MHC class II: present peptides from extracellular microbes and are recognised by CD4+ T cells

18

Describe the structure of MHC molecules

- Peptide binding cleft: variable region with highly polymorphic residues

- Broad specificity: many peptides presented by the same MHC molecules

19

What are the two different antigen processing pathways?

20

In two steps, explain the response for slow-progressor HIV-infected individuals

⇒ MHC molecules present key peptides for the survival of the virus (unmutated)

⇒ Effective T cell response

21

In three steps, explain the response for rapid-progressor HIV-infected individuals

⇒ MHC molecules present mutated peptides (less critical peptides for the virus)

⇒ Poor recognition by T cells

⇒ Poor T cell responses

22

Identify two of the clinical problems associated with MHC molecules

- Major causes for organ transplant rejection i.e. HLA molecules mismatch between donor and recipient (allograft)

- HLA association with autoimmune disease e.g. Ankylosing spondylitis, Diabetes Mellitus Type I 

23

Outline the features of T lymphocytes in terms of:

- Antigen receptor

- Types of T cells

- Antigen receptor: T cell receptor (TCR)

- Types of T cells: CD3+, CD4+, CD8+

 

24

Illustrate microbe processing and presentation in humoral immunity

25

Illustrate microbe processing and presentation in cell-dependent immunity

26

Explain the activation of the right T helper cells (TH) response 

 

27

Illustrate T cell response to intracellular microbes 

28

Explain T cell response to extracellular microbes

29

Briefly describe the characteristics of antibody response

30

State the immune functions of the IgG and IgA antibodies

- IgG – phagocytosis, complement activation, neonatal immunity

- IgA – mucosal immunity