S7) Anatomy for Dissection — Liver, Jejunum, Ileum, Colon Flashcards Preview

[AMS] Gastro-intestinal System > S7) Anatomy for Dissection — Liver, Jejunum, Ileum, Colon > Flashcards

Flashcards in S7) Anatomy for Dissection — Liver, Jejunum, Ileum, Colon Deck (53)
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1

Describe the anatomical position of the liver

The liver is located in the right hypochondrium and epigastric areas, extending into the left hypochondrium

2

There are two surfaces of the liver.

Identify them

- Diaphragmatic surface (anterosuperior surface of the liver)

- Visceral surface (posteroinferior surface of the liver)

3

The diaphragmatic surface is the anterosuperior surface of the liver. 

Describe its structure.

- It is smooth and convex, fitting snugly beneath the curvature of the diaphragm

- A section is not covered by visceral peritoneum (‘bare area’) of the liver

4

The visceral surface is the posteroinferior surface of the liver. 

Describe its structure.

- It is irregular and flat due to the presence of surrounding organs

-  It lies in contact with the oesophagus, right kidney, right adrenal gland, right colic flexure, duodenum, gallbladder and the stomach

5

Describe the superior anatomical relations of the liver

Superior to the liver is the diaphragm (separating the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity)

6

Describe the anterior anatomical relations of the liver

Anterior to the liver is the anterior abdominal wall and ribcage

 

7

Describe the posterior anatomical relations of the liver

Posterior to the liver are the oesophagus, stomach, gallbladder, first part of the duodenum (the foregut-derived organs)

8

Describe the structure and function of the various ligaments of the liver

- Structure: formed by a double layer of peritoneum

Function: attach the liver to the surrounding structures

9

Identify the 5 ligaments of the liver

- Falciform ligament

- Coronary ligaments

- Triangular ligaments 

- Hepatoduodenal ligament

- Hepatogastric ligament

10

Describe the anatomical position of the falciform ligament

- Attaches the anterior surface of the liver to the anterior abdominal wall

- Its free edge contains the ligamentum teres (a remnant of the umbilical vein)

11

Describe the anatomical position of the coronary ligaments

- Anterior and posterior folds

- Attach the superior surface of the liver to the diaphragm

12

Describe the anatomical position of the triangular ligaments

- Left and right ligaments 

- Attach the superior surface of the liver to the diaphragm

13

What does the lesser omentum consist of (in relation to the liver)?

- Hepatoduodenal ligament attaches the liver to the duodenum

- Hepatogastric ligament attaches the liver to the stomach

14

Describe the attachment of the liver to the inferior vena cava

The posterior surface of the liver is secured to the inferior vena cava by hepatic veins and fibrous tissue

15

What is the name of the fibrous layer covering the liver?

Glisson’s capsule

16

The liver is divided by the attachment of the falciform ligament. 

Identify the individual lobes formed

17

Two ‘accessory’ lobes that arise from the right lobe, and are located on the visceral surface of liver.

Identify them

- Caudate lobe

- Quadrate lobe

18

Describe the anatomical position of the caudate lobe of the liver

- Located on the upper aspect of the visceral surface

- Lies between the inferior vena cava and a fossa produced by the ligamentum venosum (a remnant of the fetal ductus venosus)

 

19

Describe the anatomical position of the quadrate lobe of the liver

- Located on the lower aspect of the visceral surface

- Lies between the gallbladder and a fossa produced by the ligamentum teres (a remnant of the fetal umbilical vein)

20

What is the porta hepatis and what does it do?

- The porta hepatis is a deep fissure between the caudate and quadrate lobes

- It transmits almost all the vessels, nerves and ducts entering or leaving the liver

21

Identify the structures in the porta hepatis

- Right and left hepatic ducts (bile)

- Right and left branches of hepatic artery

- Hepatic portal vein

NB. Porta hepatis doesn't transmit the hepatic veins

22

What does the hepatic artery do and where is it derived from?

Hepatic artery supplies the liver with arterial blood

- It is derived from the coeliac trunk

23

What does the hepatic portal vein do?

Hepatic portal vein is the dominant blood supply to the liver parencyma, supplying the liver with deoxygenated blood and carrying nutrients absorbed from the small intestine

24

Identify the 3 main tributaries of the hepatic portal vein

25

Where is the hepatic portal vein formed?

It is formed behind the upper edge of the neck of the pancreas

26

Describe the structure, function and location of the gallbladder

- Structure: peritoneal structure, gastrointestinal organ

- Function: stores and releases bile

- Location: right hypochondriac region of the abdomen, lies fossa between the right lobe and quadrate lobe of the liver

27

The gallbladder can usually be divided into three parts.

Identify them

28

What is the fundus of the gallbladder?

The fundus is the rounded, end portion of the gallbladder; which projects into the inferior surface of the liver

29

What is the body of the gallbladder?

The body is the largest part of the gallbladder and is occasionally in contact with the transverse colon and proximal duodenum

 

30

What is the neck of the gallbladder?

The neck is the tapered region which becomes continuous with the cystic duct, leading to the biliary tree