S8) Colon and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in S8) Colon and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Deck (22)
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Compare and contrast UC and CD in terms of:

- Location 

- Pathology

- Rectum involvement

- Mucosal inflammation

- Fistula formation


What sort of epithelium is found in the large intestine?

Columnar epithelium


State three functions of the large intestine

- Removes water from all the indigestible gut contents 

- Vitamin production

- Temporary storage until defaecation 


Distinguish between the small intestine and the large intestine in terms of structure

- Colon is much shorter (6 feet)

- Colon is much wider (average 6cm)

- Colon has crypts not villi 


Describe the structure of the wall of the colon

External longitudinal muscle is incomplete:

- Three distinct bands (teniae coli)

- Haustra are sacculations caused by contraction of teniae coli 


Describe mechanism of water absorption in the colon

- H2O absorption is facilitated by ENaC

- Induced by aldosterone 


What is inflammatory bowel disease?

Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of clinical conditions which are characterised by the idiopathic inflammation of the GI tact and affect the overall function of the gut 


What are the two common types of IBD?

- Crohn’s disease (15-30 yr olds & 60 yr olds)

- Ulcerative colitis (young adults) 


Identify and describe 4 extra-intestinal problems of IBD

- MSK pain — arthritis

- Skin problems — erythema nodosum / pyoderma gangrenosum / psoriasis

- Liver/biliary tree issues — Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)

- Eye problems 


Identify and describe 3 possible causes of IBD

- Genetic (1st degree relative – increased risk)

- Gut organisms (altered interaction)

- Immune response (unknown trigger – antibiotics, infections, smoking, diet)


How does Crohn's disease present?

- Tender mass (RLQ)

- Mild perianal inflammation/ulceration

- Low grade fever

- Mildly anaemic 


Identify 6 gross pathological features of Crohn's disease

- Hyperaemia

- Cobblestone Appearance

- Discrete superficial ulcers & deep ulcers

- Fistulae (bowel – bowel, bladder, vagina, skin)

- Mucosal Oedema

- Transmural inflammation


What are the effects of transmural inflammation as observed in CD?

- Thickening of bowel wall

- Narrowing of lumen 


Identify a microscopic pathological feature of Crohn's disease

Granuloma formation (pathognomonic) 


Identify 3 investigations commonly used for CD

- Bloods (anaemia)

- CT /MRI scans (bowel wall thickening & obstruction)

- Colonoscopy


How does Ulcerative colitis present?

- Mildly tender abdomen

- No perianal disease

- Normal temperature 


Identify 6 gross pathological features of UC

- Chronic inflammatory infiltrate of lamina propria

- Crypt abscesses

- Crypt distortion

- Goblet cells

- Pseudopolyps

- Loss of haustra 


Identify 5 investigations commonly used for UC

- Bloods (anaemia, serum markers)

- Stool cultures

- Plain abdominal radiographs

- CT/MRI (only for uncomplicated UC)

- Colonoscopy



What is indeterminate colitis?

Indeterminate colitis refers to the 10% of cases of inflammatory bowel disease where there is difficulty distinguishing between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease


Describe the three steps in the medical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

1. Aminosalicylates — sulfasalazine for flares and remission

2. Corticosteroids — prednisolone for flares only

3. Immunomodulators — azathioprine for fistulas / maintenance of remission 


Crohn’s Disease is not curative and surgically, as little bowel must be removed as possible. 

In which circumstances is this performed?

- Strictures form

- Fistulas form


Ulcerative colitis is curable surgically through a colectomy. 

In which circumstances is this performed?

- Inflammation not settling

- Precancerous changes

- Toxic megacolon