Samplex 2014 Set B Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Samplex 2014 Set B Deck (69)
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1

Binding of atropine to cholinergic receptor in bronchial smooth muscles triggers the physiologic response:

A. Sequestration of calcium by ER
B. Binding of cytosolic calcium to calmodulin
C. Myosin and actin interaction inhibited
D. GDP is replaced by GTP in the alpha-subunit of G protein

C

2

Agonist-GABA interaction results to:

A. Opening of voltage-gated sodium channel
B. Hyperpolarization of plasma membrane
C. Generation of action potential
D. Release of calcium from ER and mitochondria

B

3

Binding of insulin to its membrane-bound receptor leads to this cellular response

A. Facilitated diffusion of potassium across plasma membrane
B. Phosphorylation of effector proteins
C. Signal transduction and amplification by generating cAMP and Ca2+
D. Hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane

B

4

Binding of estrogen to cytosolic receptor is the target of antineoplasm intervention

A. Inhibit cellular division
B. Apoptosis
C. Necrosis
D. Inhibit pleomorphic activity

A

5

Which of the following mechanisms is not involved in desensitization/tolerance?

A. Endocytosis
B. Relocalization of receptors
C. Compensation
D. Exocytosis

D

6

A patient has a liver problem resulting to decreased albumin in blood. Which is true:

a. the volume of distribution of lipophilic is more affected than hydrophilic
b. the volume of distribution of hydrophilic is more affected than lipophilic
c. no change in Vd
d. change in Vd cannot be predicted

B

7

A drug that is completely retained in the plasma compartment would have a volume of distribution equal to which of the following (assume a 70 kg person and that plasma volume is 4% of body weight)?

A. 1.4L
B. 2.8L
C. 5.6L
D. 8.4L

NA

8

Which of the following characterizes clearance capacity-limited elimination?

a. constant fraction of remaining drug is eliminated per unit time
b. has a constant half-life
c. clearance varies depending on concentration of the drug
d. rate of elimination is faster when drug concentration is higher

C

9

Which of the following routes of administration is greatly affected by the first pass effect?

a. Intramuscular
b. Intravascular
c. Rectal
d. Inhalation

D

10

Drug A and B are eliminated from the body by metabolism in the liver. Drug A has a clearance of 1.5L/min which is approximately equal to liver blood loss whereas Drug B has a clearance of 0.1 L/min. When these drugs are administered with another drug that increases hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, which of the following is most likely?

a. Clearance of Drugs A and B will increase
b. clearance of Drugs A and B will decrease
c. Only the clearance of Drug B will Increase
d. Only the clearance of Drug A will increase

C

11

Which of the following apply to the concept of drug accumulation?

a. occurs if dosing interval is shorter that the drug's half life
b. directly proportional to the fraction of drug lost
c. dosing interval longer than six half-lives.

A

12

Which of the following is true of loading dose?

a. directly related to clearance
b. requires monitoring to prevent toxic levels
c. decrease time needed to attain steady state concentration
d. AOTA

D

13

Primary determinant of Css

A. Volume of distribution
B. tmax
C. clearance
D. half life

C

14

You have a patient in the ER presenting with tonic-clonic seizures. Immediate action is needed. What is the best route of administration of diazepam?

A. Intravenous
B. Intramuscular
C. Subcutaneous
D. Rectal

A

15

A drug, almost cleared by glomerular filtration, is given at 100 mg, 3x a day. Creatinine clearance is found out to be1/3 that of normal. What would be the initial dosage?

A. 20 mg, 3x a day
B. 33 mg, 3x a day
C. 100 mg, once a day
D. B and C

D

16

[T/F] Pharmaceutical equivalence does not necessarily imply therapeutic equivalence, as difference in excipients and/or manufacturing process and some other variants can lead to differences in production between formed drugs.

T

17

[T/F] AUCo t and tmax are the most important parameters in the evaluation of bioequivalence.

F

18

[T/F] Since the relative bioavailability of the drug from its tablet form was approximately 100 percent (F = 1) when compared to the oral solution, the drug was completely absorbed systemically.

F

19

[T/F] Based on the table above, Treatment A (generic drug) is considered bioequivalent with Treatment B (innovator drug).

F

20

[T/F] A low bioavailability may result from first pass metabolism during transit through the intestinal epithelium, active efflux transport of drug back into the lumen, and a poorly formulated dosage.

T

21

The following statements are true of the concept of toxicology, except

A. It is the study that involves adverse effects of drugs in their therapeutic dose
B. The toxicity of chemicals are inherent in nature
C. The risk to development of poisoning varies with the degree of exposure
D. Safety is the probability that harm will not occur under specified conditions

A

22

Example(s) of toxic actions affecting cellular dysregulation include(s) the ff:

a. Inhibit ATP synthesis
b. Inhibit gene expression
c. Inhibit membrane function
d. A and B only
e. AOTA

B

23

The following are potential stages in development of toxicity except:

a. Delivery
b. Cell dysfunction/injury
c. Interaction with target molecule
d. A and B only
e. AOTA

D

24

The factors that affects response to toxic agents

a. Duration of exposure
b. Chemical properties of substance
c. Health status of individuals
d. A and B only
e. AOTA

E

25

Example(s) of toxic actions affecting cellular dysregulation include(s) the ff:

a. Inhibit ATP synthesis
b. Inhibit gene expression
c. Inhibit membrane function
d. A and B only
e. AOTA

B

26

On the last stage of potential toxicity the ff. processes are involved:

a. Fibrosis
b. Necrosis
c. Apoptosis
d. A and B only
e. AOTA

D

27

True about the nature of toxic action

a. The toxic action of a drug is not necessarily an exaggeration of its therapeutic effect
b. The intensity of a toxic effect depends on its concentration at the target organ
c. The toxic action of a drug may be brought about by its metabolites
d. A and B only
e. AOTA

E

28

True regarding toxic effects produced by chemicals:

a. Chemical allergy is a genetically induced adverse reaction
b. Delayed reaction is an extension of the immediate effects
c. Substances can have both local and systemic effects
d. A and B only
e. AOTA

D

29

Mechanisms involving distribution that the body uses to protect itself from toxic effects of chemicals include:

a. First pass effect
b. Presence of specialized barriers
c. Detoxification
d. A and B only
e. AOTA

E

30

The statement regarding kinetic process is/are true:

a. Ion trapping is a mechanism wherein weak acids become ionized in the presence of urinary acidic pH
b. In overdose state, protein binding sites become saturated which results in an increased fraction of unbound drug
c. Bioavailability is a process wherein drugs/substances become inactivated
d. A and B only
e. AOTA

B