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Flashcards in Samplex 2017 Deck (60)
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1

Based on 1966 WHO definition of a drug, which is not a drug?

A. BCG vaccination given to prevent TB
B. Penicillin given to eradicate streptococcal infection in a patient with rheumatic fever
C. Synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormones given to detect the presence of Addison’s disease
D. Methamphetamine inhalation to achieve euphoria but frequently leads to something, heart disease, psychosis

D

2

Apothecaries in the history of pharmacology refers to:

A. Collection of folkloric tales about herbal remedies
B. Pharmacies or drugstores where medicines are sold
C. Laboratories where natural products are purified and active drugs are isolated
D. Clinics where doctors prescribe herbal medicine

B

3

Patient with asthma presents with bronchoconstriction. Which drug casues delayed but prolonged bronchodilation?

A. Glucocorticoid through GCPR
B. b-adrenergic through GCPR
C. Glucocorticoid through enzyme-linked receptor
D. Glucocorticoid inside cytoplasmic/nuclear receptor

D

4

The action of mannitol of decreasing intracranial pressure is mediated by this type of receptor:

A. Ionotropic
B. Metabotropic
C. GPCK
D. NOTA

D

5

Use of an allosteric activatior with another drug will result in:

A. Decreased efficacy of drug
B. Increased efficacy of drug
C. Decreased potency of drug
D. Increased potency of drug

NA

6

When acetylcholine binds to nicotine receptors:

A. Open Na+ channels
B. Generate CAMP
C. Gene expression
D. Activate tyrosine kinase

NA

7

Allosteric activator cause effects:

A. Greater than agonist alone
B. Less than agonist alone
C. Equal to agonist alone
D. Opposite the action of agonist

A

8

Glucocorticoid hydrocotisone binds to the following receptor:

A. Ionotropic
B. GPCR
C. Tyrosine kinase
D. Cytoplasmic/nuclear receptor

D

9

Benzodiazepine, after binding to its target receptor, causes what changes?

A. Separation of the Gsa subunit from Gb and Gγ protein subunits
B. Autophosphorylation of the beta subunit of the receptor
C. Direct opening of ionophore channel causing exit of sodium
D. Conformational change of GABA receptor causing improved GABA binding

D

10

The ff. contribute to the development of desensitization/tachyphylaxis:

A. Endocytosis of receptors
B. Phosphorylation
C. Compensation
D. Exocytosis of receptors

D

11

Tamoxifen is said to be a partial agonist. It would have the ff. properties:

A. It would be antagonistic at very high dose.
B. It functions as an antagonist in breast tissue but is agonistic in bone.
C. Change the configuration of estrogen receptor which causes it to fail.

B

12

Bevacuzimab (Avastin) is a newly discovered chemotherapeutic drug released and marketed since
2011. Dr. Bernardo wanted to determine the effects of the drug to his ovarian cancer patients. Roche, a pharmaceutical company, gave him a grant to determine the adverse effects of the drug.

A. Phase I
B. Phase II
C. Phase III
D. Phase IV

D

13

A group of scientists want to discover the effects of the makahiya plant on insulin resistance. A clinical trial was conducted using rat models, and monitored the concentration of the plant in the kidneys using western blot analysis. Also measured blood sugar, serum insulin, and HBA1C levels

A. Phase I
B. Phase II
C. Pre-clinical
D. Phase IV

D

14

RCT, open-labelled, humans, 600+ DM Type 2, 69 worldwide sites

A. Phase I
B. Phase II
C. Phase III
D. Phase IV

C

15

Efficacy of drug with Dry Eye Syndrome. Trial involving 200 patients

A. Phase I
B. Phase II
C. Phase III
D. Phase IV

B

16

While receptors regulate biochemical and physiological activity, they are also subject to regulatory mechanisms, such as:

A. Upregulation due to synthesis of new receptors
B. Upregulation due to continued stimulation
C. Downregulation due to covalent bonding and destruction of receptors.
D. A & C
E. AOTA

NA

17

Dose-response curve:

A. Hyperbola
B. Sigmoid
C. 4 parameters: efficacy, potency, slope, variability
D. AOTA
E. B & C only

E

18

A quantal-dose response:

A. Defined as the population frequency in response to varying doses
B. All or none
C. Gaussian
D. A & C
E. AOTA

NA

19

Potency is:

A. Effectiveness of drug relative to dose
B. Importance is considered where ease of administration ends
C. Sigmoid on the horizontal axis
D. B & C
E. All of the above

NA

20

Pharmacokinetics:

A. Deals with what body does to the drug
B. Consists of disposition and elimination
C. Consists of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
D. A & C
E. AOTA

E

21

Proactive drugs are used for the ff.:

A. For easier oral absorption
B. Improve safety
C. To test the liver
D. A & B
E. AOTA

D

22

The Cyp450 microsomal enzyme that is responsible for most (greater part of) metabolism of drugs:

A. Cyp1A (Another one said Cyp2A1)
B. Cyp3A4
C. Cyp2C1
D. Cyp2D1
E. Cyp2E1

B

23

For 99% of the drug to be eliminated from the body, the minimum number of half-lives that should have been completed is:

A. 3
B. 4
C. 5
D. 6
E. 7

E

24

RA 9711 of FDA of 2009 defined drugs as:

A. Articles that cure, mitigate, prevent, treat, and diagnose disease states in humans and animals
B. Processed food that alter physiological states of humans and animals
C. Processed herbal products
D. AOTA

A

25

In AO 172 S2004, Herbal Medicine is defined as:

A. Finished labeled products
B. Containing active ingredients whether in crude state or as plant preparation
C. Contain plant material including juices, gums, fatty oils
D. AOTA

D

26

Requirement of Philippine FDA for herbal medicines except:

A. Standard limits (e.g. Aflatoxin limits, microbial limits)
B. Organoleptic characterictics and macroscopic appearance
C. Mutagenicity and toxicity studies

C

27

The International Committee on Harmonization (ICH) Tripartite Guidelines on Non-clinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human clinical Trials state the ff. except:

A. Any substance or combination of substances which has a therapeutic, prophylactic, or diagnostic purpose, or is intended to modify physiological functions and presented in a dosage form suitable for administration in humans.
B. To promote safe, ethical development and availability of new pharmaceuticals
C. For situations encountered during the conventional development of pharmaceuticals
D. For biotechnology-derived products pharmaceuticals for life-threatening or serious diseases without effective current therapy.

D

28

True of Acute Toxicity Non-clinical Studies:

A. 2 mammalian species using both clinical and parenteral routes; 1 dose; observed for 14
days
B. Lethality is intended end point.
C. Cannot be obtained from dose-escalation studies
D. Cannot be used to predict consequences of human overdose

A

29

The ff. duration of Repeated Dose Toxicity studies are required of Pediatric population clinical trials:

A. Repeated dose-toxicity studies in animals
B. All reproduction toxicity studies in animals
C. Adult human safety data
D. AOTA

NA

30

[T/F] Absorption of IV is 100%.

T