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Flashcards in SAS/Review Deck (144)
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Which antibiotic is associated with pumonary fibrosis?



What is the treatment for endometrial hyperplasia?

Progesterone therapy or hysterectomy


(Sometimes do progesterone now, plan hysterectomy for later if pt wants to have more children)


B - rule out other sources of hyperandrogenism


Most likely PCOS, but cannot say definitively until other causes (tumor, CAH, Cushing) are ruled out



List the estrogenic (4) and anti-estrogenic (2) effects of tamoxifen

  • Estrogenic
    • Venous thrombosis :(
    • Endometrium: polyps, hyperplasia, risk of cancer :(
    • Maintains bone density :) 
    • Maintains vaginal mucosa :)
  • Anti-estrogenic
    • Breast :) - fights cancer!
    • Hot flashes :(



List 2 nerves that innervate levator ani

Pudendal nerve (inferior rectal branch)

Nerve to the levator ani


Nerve to the levator ani is also from the anterior branches of S2, S3, S4, but not the same as the pudendal



Which kidney stones are diamond-shaped?

Calcium oxalate


What is the most malignant tumor involving the spermatic cord?



Describe the management of placenta previa

  • Pelvic rest 
  • Expectant management
    • Give antenatal steroids if <34 weeks
  • Planned C-section at 37 weeks



What is the function of prostate-specific antigen?

Liquifies semen


(And also used as a marker for prostate cancer)


In a patient with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, what would you expect the results to be from:

  • Prostestin challenge:
  • Estrogen + progestin challenge:

  • Prostestin challenge: No bleeding (negative)
    • Implies either outflow obstruction OR low estrogen
  • Estrogen + progestin challenge: Bleeding (positive)
    • Implies low estrogen; cause of amenorrhea is central


Functional hypothalamic amenorreha = suppresed GnRH -> no LH/FSH -> no estrogen or progesterone 

NOTE: GnRH levels cannot be measured in the blood


Which nerve is responsible for emission?

Which one is responsible for ejaculation (aka expulsion)?


(How are these two entities different?

Emission: Lumbar sympathetic nerves 

Ejaculation (expulsion): Pudendal nerve (somatic)



Emission gets semen to the posterior urethra

Ejaculation gets it out into the world


What kind of renal cancer is associated with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer?

What is the causative gene?

Papillary RCC type 2 or collecting duct carcinoma



List 3 features of koliocytes

  • Large cells
  • Large, crinkled, possibly binucleated nuclei (raisin-like)
  • Perinuclear clear halo



Which of the following is a contraindication to medical abortion?

  1. Inadequate cervical cancer screening
  2. Long term OCP use
  3. IUD in place
  4. Liver disease

c. IUD in place




Which imaging study is most useful for diagnosing hydronephrosis?



CT is pretty good, but, not the best for imaging things with a large cavity in the middle


A patient on a combined OCP is experiencing nausea and breast tenderness.

Which hormone is most likely responsible for these effects?

How would you modify her OCP to mitigate these effects?


Switch to a combined OCP with a lower dose of estrogen


What is the usual natural history of mild cervical dysplasia due to HPV infection?

Usually, the dysplasia will regress and resolve

  • Can progress - slow growing
  • More likely to progress in immunocompromised individuals



Which hormone can be measured (and when) to predict ovulatioN?

Serum progesterone on day 21 and 27


More reliable than temperature charting


MOA: Finasteride

5-alpha-reductase inhibitor

Acts as an anti-androgen by preventing the conversion of testosterone to the more potent DHT

Anti-androgen therapy helpful in the treatment of BPH


6 weeks after surgical removal of a cancerous prostate lesion, a patient's PSA is elevated (>0.1 ng/mL)

What is the best adjuvant approach?

Combined androgen ablation + radiation


What is the female homolog of the male prostate?

Where is it located?

Skene gland

Around the opening of the urethra

(In the vestibule, anterior to the opening of the vagina)


Where would a Gartner's duct cyst be located?

What cause this cyst?

Anterolateral aspect of the proxmal vagina

Wolffian duct remnant


Which GI complaint is most common in the first trimester of pregnancy?


Nausea + vomiting

Caused by high hCG


What are the histologic features of a mixed germ cell tumor (embryonal carcinoma) of the testes?

Solid, glandular, and papillary patterns


What is the primary arterial blood supply to the prostate?

Inferior vesical artery


What is the half life of PSA?

2-3 days


What is the differece between mild, moderate, and severe cervical dysplasia?

  • Mild = lower 1/3 of epithelum only
  • Moderate = Involves middle 1/3 and lower 1/3 of the epithelium
  • Severe = Involves the hwol epithelium



What is the most serious and likely side effect estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy?

Endometrial cancer


DVT also possible, but less common?


What is the histologic hallmark of a yok sac tumor?

Schiller-duvall body



If a patient's testicular tumor markers do not normalize after orchiectomy, what is the next step in their managment?

Start chemotherapy


If tumor markers don't normalize, implies metastatic disease

Do chemotherapy; if tumor markers normalize, can do post-chemotherapy surgical resection (PC-RPLND)