Flashcards in Scenario 32 Deck (70)
What is fine needle aspiration?
technique for obtaining cells for cytological diagnosis directly for palpable masses and radiologically guided for deep seated lesions
What are the two options for a tumour?
Malignant or benign
What is the 1-5 rating of lumps?
1- benign 5-cancer definite
What % of women at diagnosis have no overt metastatic disease?
What are the stages in the cell cycle?
What happens in G1?
Double internal structurees
What happens in G0?
Leave the cell cycle (eg neurones and cardiac muscle)
What happens in S?
Doubling the chromosomes
What happens in G2?
Check that things are copied correctly
How long does it take to go round the cycle?
Vaies- tumours take longer (24-72 hours)
What is the role of cyclin?
The activator present at different stages in the cycle (how it moves around the cycle)
What keeps cells in homeostasis?
The differentiation and specialisation that they have underfone, constraints by neighbouring cells, availability of metabolic substrates and the finite speed at which their internal metabolic pathways can function
What is hypertrophy?
Increase in cellular mass to maintain the higher levels of metabolic activity bought about by increasing the numbers of sub cellular organelles
What is hyperplasia?
Increase in number of cells in an organ or tissue which may lead to an increase in volume
Physiological- hormonal (breast), compensatory (liver)
Pathological- excessive hormonal stimulation of target cells (endometrium from oestrogen)
What is metaplasia?
Reversible change where one adult cell type is replaced by another
Eg- squamous metaplasia in the reap tract of smokers and at the cervix and glandular metaplasia in lower oesophagus
What are the morphological features of malignancy?
Increased cell proliferation and incomplete differentiation (irreversible change in the genome)
What is a neoplasm?
Abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is coordinated with that of normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner after the cessation of the stimuli which evoked the change
Arises from just one cell
What are the basic components of a tumour?
Proliferating neoplastic cells that constitute the parenchyma and supportive stroma made up of CT, BV and lymphatics
What are malignant neoplasms of epithelial cell origin called?
eg. squamous, adeno (glandular), basal cell
What are cancers arising from mesenchymal tissue called? (connective tissue)
eg. lipo, fibro, osteo, chondro
What is the mechanism of cancer invasion?
Physical invasion, reduced adhesiveness and cohesiveness of tumour cells, increased motility of tumour cells, loss of 'contact inhibition' (2 layers of cells should touch and stop proliferating) and release of destructive enzymes
What is the difference in differentiation of benign and malignant neoplasm?
Benign are well differentiated and malignant range from well to un
What is the difference in rate of growth of benign and malignant tumours?
Most benign grow slowly where most malignant grow rapidly. Growth rate of tumours correlates with the level of differentiation.
How do tumours spread?
Benign tumours are encapsulated but malignant are never encapsulated are are characterised by infiltrative, erosive growth and extend crab like feel into adjacent tissues (invasiveness)
What are the two most reliable features to distinguish malignant from benign tumours?
Invasiveness and metastases
What is a cancer starting in a blood forming tissue called?
What is a cancer that starts in cells of the immune system calles?
What is a cancer that starts in the brain or spine called
How can a benign tumour be dangerous?
If it compresses things or releases hormones