Flashcards in Scenario 21 Deck (155)
What are the three layers of the uterus?
Serosa (parietal peritoneum), myometrium and endometrium
How is the cervix alkaline?
Constantly producing mucus
How does the vagina protect itself?
Rich in glycogen which attract bacteria that produce lactic acid
At what angle is the vagina at?
15 degrees backwards
How does the uterus lie?
Anteversed and antiflexed
What is the broad ligament?
A double fold of peritoneum draped over the uterus and its tubes
What are the suspensory ligaments?
Continuation fo the broad ligament onto the lateral pelvic walls
What is the round ligament?
distal part of the gubernaculum around the bladder
What are the cervical ligaments?
Pubocervical, transverse cervical and sacrocervical ligaments
Where is fertilisation most likely to happen?
Nerves to the female reproductive system
Symp T10-L1, Parasymp S2-4 Somatics Pudendal
Arterial supply to the area
Internal iliac arteries and ovarian arteries from AA at L2
When do we have our maximum number of primary oocytes?
23 weeks- 7 million
What does the primary oocyte number reduce to by birth?
2 million and 0.5-1 million by first menstrual cycle
What are the three ovarian cycle phases?
Follicular, ovulation and luteal
What are the three uterine cycle phases
Menstrual proliferative and secretory
What hormones are high in menstrual stage (first part of follicular)?
FSH and LH
FSH causes 20 antral follicles to be recruites with one becoming the Graafian follicle
Why does one of these follicle become dominant?
FSH causes the proliferation of granulosa cells in the follicles and LH receptors to be expressed on these cells by 10 days one follicle will be dominant and secrete oestrogen which causes a reduction in FSH levels causing atresia of the other non dominant follicles
What hormones are present in the proliferative phase (second part of follicular) day 6-14
FSH, Oestrogen (LH dropped)
What is the result of the production of oestrogen from the graafian follicle on the uterus?
Formation of a new endometrial layer and spiral arteries and cervix produces mucus to reduce the acidity of the vagina
What happens at ovulation?
LH levels rise and 36 hours after the graafian follicle ruptures and discharges an oocyte
What hormones are high in the secretory/ luteal phase?
Progesterone and oestrogen, FSH and LH dropping
How does the graafian follicle transform into the corpus luteum?
Remaining FSH and LH
What is the role of progesterone?
Makes the endometrium respond to implantation by causing the endometrial glands to secrete mucus and glycogen
Why do FSH and LH levels drop?
Suppressed by the progesterone and oestrogen from the corpus luteum
What happens to the CL as FSH and LH drop
Atrophy and death unless fertilisation occurs and hCG is produced which is structurally similar to LH meaning it can continue to make progesterone and oestrogen for 10-12 weeks until the placenta takes over
When does menstruation happen?
When the CL degenerates and oestrogen and progesterone levels drop- uterine gland are wide and spiral arteries start contracting
What does a small increase of oestrogen do?
decrease in FSH production
What does a large increase in oestrogen do?
increase LH production (late follicular phase)