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Flashcards in Scenario 21 Deck (155)
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1

What are the three layers of the uterus?

Serosa (parietal peritoneum), myometrium and endometrium

2

How is the cervix alkaline?

Constantly producing mucus

3

How does the vagina protect itself?

Rich in glycogen which attract bacteria that produce lactic acid

4

At what angle is the vagina at?

15 degrees backwards

5

How does the uterus lie?

Anteversed and antiflexed

6

What is the broad ligament?

A double fold of peritoneum draped over the uterus and its tubes

7

What are the suspensory ligaments?

Continuation fo the broad ligament onto the lateral pelvic walls

8

What is the round ligament?

distal part of the gubernaculum around the bladder

9

What are the cervical ligaments?

Pubocervical, transverse cervical and sacrocervical ligaments

10

Where is fertilisation most likely to happen?

Ampulla

11

Nerves to the female reproductive system

Symp T10-L1, Parasymp S2-4 Somatics Pudendal

12

Arterial supply to the area

Internal iliac arteries and ovarian arteries from AA at L2

13

When do we have our maximum number of primary oocytes?

23 weeks- 7 million

14

What does the primary oocyte number reduce to by birth?

2 million and 0.5-1 million by first menstrual cycle

15

What are the three ovarian cycle phases?

Follicular, ovulation and luteal

16

What are the three uterine cycle phases

Menstrual proliferative and secretory

17

What hormones are high in menstrual stage (first part of follicular)?

FSH and LH
FSH causes 20 antral follicles to be recruites with one becoming the Graafian follicle

18

Why does one of these follicle become dominant?

FSH causes the proliferation of granulosa cells in the follicles and LH receptors to be expressed on these cells by 10 days one follicle will be dominant and secrete oestrogen which causes a reduction in FSH levels causing atresia of the other non dominant follicles

19

What hormones are present in the proliferative phase (second part of follicular) day 6-14

FSH, Oestrogen (LH dropped)

20

What is the result of the production of oestrogen from the graafian follicle on the uterus?

Formation of a new endometrial layer and spiral arteries and cervix produces mucus to reduce the acidity of the vagina

21

What happens at ovulation?

LH levels rise and 36 hours after the graafian follicle ruptures and discharges an oocyte

22

What hormones are high in the secretory/ luteal phase?

Progesterone and oestrogen, FSH and LH dropping

23

How does the graafian follicle transform into the corpus luteum?

Remaining FSH and LH

24

What is the role of progesterone?

Makes the endometrium respond to implantation by causing the endometrial glands to secrete mucus and glycogen

25

Why do FSH and LH levels drop?

Suppressed by the progesterone and oestrogen from the corpus luteum

26

What happens to the CL as FSH and LH drop

Atrophy and death unless fertilisation occurs and hCG is produced which is structurally similar to LH meaning it can continue to make progesterone and oestrogen for 10-12 weeks until the placenta takes over

27

When does menstruation happen?

When the CL degenerates and oestrogen and progesterone levels drop- uterine gland are wide and spiral arteries start contracting

28

What does a small increase of oestrogen do?

decrease in FSH production

29

What does a large increase in oestrogen do?

increase LH production (late follicular phase)

30

How do we measure ovarian reserve?

1-antral follicle count (in early follicular phase)
Hormone levels- inhibitin B suppression of FSH secretion decreases so high FSH in early follicular phase, anti-mullerian hormone