# Schedule Flashcards

1
Q
```1. One of your team members working on the project informed you that a work package will most likely require ten weeks to complete. In the best case scenario, if everything goes well and there are no surprises, it will take eight weeks. Since he is involved in more than two projects and has several pending deliverables, this specific work package may take eighteen weeks to complete. Based on this information, what would be the correct estimated time to compete the work package?
A. Eleven weeks
B. ten weeks
C. Nine weeks
D. eighteen weeks```
A
1. A: PERT allows the estimator to include three estimates: optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely, given by the equation: = (8 + 4*10 + 18) / 6 = 11 weeks
2
Q
```2. Your project sponsor is extremely disappointed with the project as it is over budget by \$15,000 and also behind schedule by several weeks. The sponsor has asked you to take care of the situation immediately and do whatever it takes. While exploring different options to shorten the project duration, you decide to put some of the noncritical activities on hold so that some of the resources working on these activities can be assigned to the activities with the most schedule risk. You also asked for a couple of additional external resources to be added to the project. The sponsor agrees to pay the additional cost since time is now a critical factor. This is an example of which of the following?
A. Crashing
B. Fast-tracking
C. Critical chain method
D. Resource leveling```
A
1. A: The best option here is to add additional resources to the project activities on the critical path to complete them quickly. Fast-tracking is the technique of doing critical path activities in parallel when they were originally planned in series. Resource leveling is used to produce a resource-limited schedule by letting the schedule slip and cost increase in order to deal with a limited amount of resources, resource availability, and other resource constraints. The critical chain method is another way to develop an
approved, realistic, and resource-limited formal schedule. It provides a way to view and
manage uncertainty when building the project schedule.
3
Q
1. A project manager is in the Sequence Activities process of identifying and documenting relationships among defined activities and arranging them in the order they must be performed. While in this process, the project manager decided to utilize a software tool to create a Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) network diagram. This network diagram creates a schematic display of the sequential and logical relationships,
dependencies, and the order in which activities in a project must be performed. The
project manager also added the duration of each activity in the network diagram to
calculate the critical path. Which one of the following is FALSE about the critical path?
A. It is the longest duration path through a network diagram.
B. It determines the shortest time to complete the project.
C. The activities on the critical path represent the highest schedule risk in the project.
D. The activities on the critical path represent critical functionality.
A
1. D: The activities on the critical path do not necessarily represent the critical functionalities in the project. The critical path is the longest duration path in the network diagram, and this duration is the shortest time needed to complete the project. The activities on the critical path have no buffer, and any delay in the critical path activities will delay the project; thus, the critical path activities represent the highest schedule risk.
4
Q
1. While reviewing your project resource histogram, you notice several peaks and valleys, as resources are not evenly distributed in your project. In order to evenly utilize
resources as much as possible, you decide to move some activities from the week when
you are using a lot of resources to the week when you are hardly using any. Which
technique are you using in this case?
A. Resource leveling
B. Overtime
C. Schedule compression
D. Schedule control
A
1. A: Resource leveling is used to produce a resource-limited schedule by letting the schedule slip and cost increase in order to deal with a limited amount of resources, resource availability, and other resource constraints. It can be used when shared or critically required resources are only available at certain times, are in limited quantities, or when resources have been over allocated. We may have several peaks and valleys in our resource histogram. In order to level the resources, evenly utilize them as much as possible, or to keep resource usage at a constant level, we can move some of our activities from the week when we are using a lot of resources to the week when we are hardly using any.
5
Q
```5. Which one of the following takes the progressive elaboration approach and plans the work in the near term in detail and future work in a higher level?
A. Scope definition
B. Rolling wave planning
C. Decomposition
D. SWOT analysis```
A
1. B: The rolling wave planning takes the progressive elaboration approach and plans the work in the near term in detail and future work in a higher level. During the early strategic planning phase, work packages may be decomposed into less-defined milestone levels since all details are not available, and later they are decomposed into detailed activities. This kind of planning is usually used in IT and research projects, but is very unlikely in construction projects where any unknowns are extremely expensive and destructive.
6
Q
1. Your team just finished the design activities for a software development project. You
have ordered a server and a couple of PCs to set up the development environment and
are waiting for the vendor to deliver to you so that the team can start the development
work. The vendor informs you that it will take twelve days for the equipment delivery, set
up, and configuration. The twelve days waiting time can be defined as:
A. Mandatory dependency
B. Lag
D. Internal dependency
A
1. B: A lag is an inserted waiting time between activities.
7
Q
1. Which one of the following estimating techniques uses mathematical models based
on historical records from other projects and can sometimes produce higher levels of
accuracy?
A. One point estimating
B. Analogous estimating
C. Parametric estimating
D. Three-points estimating
A
1. C: A parametric estimate uses mathematical models based on historical records from other projects. It utilizes the statistical relationship that exists between a series of historical data and a particular delineated list of other variables. Depending upon the quality of the underlying data, this estimate can produce higher levels of accuracy and can be used in conjunction with other estimates to provide estimates for the entire project or for specific segments of the project. Measures such as time per line of code, time per installation, and time per linear meter are considered in this type of estimate.
8
Q
1. One of your team members is always late completing his deliverables. In order to help
him out with proper planning for his activities, you’d like to explore different options
with him. You asked the team member to send you information about the total float and
free float for all of his activities if there is any. How does free float differ from total float?
A. Total float and free float are the same thing.
B. Free float affects only the early start of the successor activities.
C. Total float is the accumulated amount of free float.
D. Subtracting the total float from the critical path duration will give the free float.
A
1. B: Total float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the project completion date. Free float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the early start of its successor.
9
Q
1. A project manager is managing a web-based application project to automate the
accounting processes of his organization. The project has an estimated budget of
\$120,000 and a duration of nine months. While reviewing the project, the project
manager notices that activities were scheduled in sequential order, but coding work was initiated twelve days earlier than planned. What type of relationship represents the start
of the coding work to the completion of the design work?
A. Finish-to-start relationship with a twelve-day lag
B. Finish-to-start relationship with a twelve-day lead
C. Start-to-finish with a twelve-day lag
D. Start-to-finish with a twelve-day lead
A
1. B: A lead is an acceleration of the successor activity, or in other words, a successor activity getting a jump start. A lead may be added to start an activity before the predecessor activity is completed. There is a finish-to-start relationship between the design and coding, meaning that design work should be completed prior to starting coding. But in this case, coding work had a jump start as it was initiated twelve days before the design was completed. This can be shown as a finish-to-start relationship with twelve days lead.
10
Q
1. While working with your team members on activity sequencing, a team member
identifies that even though a series of activities are planned to be completed in a
specific sequence, they can be performed in parallel. What type of activity sequencing
method may be utilized in this situation?
A. Critical path
B. Resource leveling method
C. Monte Carlo simulation
D. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
A
1. D: The precedence diagramming method creates a schematic display of the sequential and logical relationships of the project activities. Usually, it shows dependencies and the order in which activities in a project must be performed. Critical path is not a diagramming method.
11
Q
1. You are the project manager overseeing the implementation of a new computer
infrastructure at the local hospital. Your sponsor has informed you that all the existing
applications must work in the new infrastructure, and the project should be completed
in three months. These are examples of:
A. A lag
C. An estimation
D. A constraint
A
1. D: These are examples of a constraint or limitation that limits options and eliminates
alternatives in the project.
12
Q
1. One of your team members is always late completing his deliverables. You decided to keep an eye on this team member’s activities to avoid any delay in the project. While
reviewing one of the activities of this team member, you found out that the activity
has an early start of day 5, an early finish of day 12, a late start of day 15, and a late
finish of day 22. The team member tells you that he needs an additional four days to
complete the activity due to various reasons he can think of. Which one of the following
statements is TRUE?
A. This activity will delay the project.
B. This activity will most probably not delay the project.
C. The activity has a lag.
D. The successor activity will be delayed.
A
1. B: There is not much information to determine if the activity has a lag or not. The float of this activity is Late Finish – Early Finish = 10 days. The activity is not on the critical path because it has a float or buffer of ten days. Even if the team member takes four additional days to complete the activity, it probably will have no impact on the project schedule or on the successor activity.
13
Q
1. Which one of the following analysis methods usually uses Monte Carlo simulation to simulate the outcome of a project by making use of three-point estimates (Optimistic, Pessimistic, Most Likely) for each activity, a huge number of simulated scheduling possibilities, or a few selected scenarios that are most likely, and the network diagram?

A. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
B. What-if scenario analysis
C. Critical chain method
D. Resource leveling

A
1. B: What-if scenario analysis usually uses Monte Carlo simulation to simulate the outcome of a project by making use of a few selected scenarios that are most likely, and
the network diagram. The outcome of this analysis may be used to evaluate the project schedule under adverse conditions and to develop the preventive and contingency
action plan to reduce the impact and probability of the unexpected situations.
14
Q
1. A project manager managing a recruitment automation application project just
completed developing the schedule and requested stakeholders and the client for
their approval. The sponsor has expressed her frustration about the unexpected long
duration of the project and has demanded the schedule be compressed as much as
possible. While exploring different options, you find out that you cannot really change
the network diagram due to various constraints, but the sponsor has agreed to pay
for additional personnel resources if needed. What will be your BEST option in this
situation?
A. Apply the critical chain method
B. Fast-track the project and also apply the resource leveling method
C. Crash the project
D. Crash and fast-track the project
A
1. C: Fast-tracking is the technique of doing critical path activities in parallel when they were originally planned in series. Fast-tracking will not be an option in this case since you cannot change the network diagram, or in other words, you cannot perform activities
in parallel that were originally planned to be completed in sequence. The best
option here is to add additional resources to the project activities on the critical path to
complete them quickly. Resource leveling is used to produce a resource-limited schedule by letting the schedule slip and cost increase in order to deal with a limited amount of resources, resource availability, and other resource constraints. The critical chain method is another way to develop an approved, realistic, resource-limited, and formal schedule. It provides a way to view and manage uncertainty when building the project schedule.
15
Q
1. Your project sponsor is extremely disappointed with the project as it is over budget
by \$20,000 and also behind schedule by several weeks. The sponsor has asked you to
take care of the situation immediately. While exploring different options to shorten the
project duration, you decide, with management’s approval, to perform several activities
in parallel rather than in sequential order as originally planned. You know your option
will possibly result in rework, increase risks, and require more communication, but you
decide to go for it any way. This is an example of which of the following?
A. Critical chain method
B. Crashing
C. Resource leveling
D. Fast-tracking
A
1. D: Fast-tracking is the technique of doing critical path activities in parallel when they
were originally planned in series.
16
Q
```16. You have recently been assigned as a program manager to implement an ERP solution in your organization. Initially, the team will only work on five key modules in the first phase of the project. The second phase of the project has not been approved yet. You have estimated that three of the modules will take ten days each, and the remaining two will be completed in fifteen days each. It is not possible to work on these modules in parallel. What would be the approximate duration for the first phase of your project?
A. Fifty-five to sixty-five days
B. Fifty days
C. Ten days
D. Ninety days```
A
1. A: The duration of three modules is 10 * 3 = 30 days, and the remaining two modules is 2 * 15 = 30 days. The first phase of the project will take 30 + 30 = 60 days, or approximately between fifty-five and sixty-five days.
17
Q
1. You are in the Control Schedule process of monitoring the status of the project by
comparing the result to the plan, updating project progress, and managing changes
to the project schedule baseline. You are mainly focused on the current status and
changes to the project schedule, influential factors that create schedule changes, and
management of actual changes as they occur. Which of the following is NOT a tool or
technique in this time management process?
A. Schedule compression
B. Data Analysis
C. Resource optimization techniques
D. Schedule forecasts
A
1. D: The schedule forecasts are outputs of the Control Schedule process, not tools & techniques.
18
Q
1. Steve has just been assigned as a project manager for a newly approved software
development project. The sponsor is interested in knowing a high-level estimation on
the total duration of the project and asks Steve to send him the information by the end
of the day. What kind of estimate should Steve use in this kind of situation?
A. An analogous estimate
B. A heuristic estimate
C. A three-point estimate
D. A bottom-up estimate
A
1. A: An analogous estimate is usually done during the early phase of the project when not much information is available about the project. It is less accurate even though it is less costly and less time consuming. In a bottom-up approach, one estimate per activity is received from the team members; it requires significant time to develop. A heuristic estimate is based on rule of thumb. A PERT estimate, also known as a weighted average
estimate, is usually associated with specific project activities and requires significant
time to develop as well.
19
Q
1. You are in the Estimate Activity Durations process to estimate durations for the activities of the project. These estimates usually originated from project team members most familiar with the activity and then progressively elaborated. Which one of the following is TRUE about this process?
A. This process must be performed after the Develop Schedule process.
B. Padding is a common practice and the project manager should not be too worried
C. The activity duration estimates are outputs in this process.
D. It is not important that all estimates in this process should use a common work unit/
period.
A
1. C: The activity duration estimates are outputs in the Estimate Activity Durations process. This process should be performed before the Develop Schedule process. Adding additional time or padding the estimate is a common practice in this process, so the project manager should make sure that the estimates from the team members are realistic. It is important that all estimates in this process should use a common work unit/period.
20
Q
1. You just completed developing the schedule for your project and got the approval from stakeholders and the sponsor. One of the team members assigned to work on a critical component informs you that she needs additional time to complete her activities as several relevant pieces were missed during planning. Her updated estimate would have no impact on the critical path; thus, the project duration would be the same. The best approach the project manager may take in this situation will be:
A. Find a replacement for the resource who can complete the task within the allocated
time.
B. Inform the resource that it is too late for any kind of change in the project schedule.
C. Inform her that it is OK as you have sufficient schedule reserve to handle this kind of
situation.
D. Update the project schedule and other relevant plans to reflect the new estimate.
A
1. D: The best course of action will be to update the project schedule and other relevant plans to reflect the new estimate.
21
Q
1. You are overseeing a data center project for one of your clients. The team members have finished creating the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and work breakdown structure dictionary. The team members also submitted their activity duration estimates to you. What should you focus on NEXT?
A. Sequence the activities using the precedence diagramming method.
B. Create the activity list.
C. Determine high-level project assumptions and constraints.
D. Develop the project schedule.
A
1. A: Your team has created the WBS, WBS dictionary, and activity list and has submitted the activity durations. The next step should be to sequence the activities by creating a network diagram using the precedence diagramming method. Determining high-level project assumptions and constraints is done as part of project initiation and is completed much earlier. The Develop Schedule process follows the Sequence Activities process. Note that sequencing activities can be done before or after the activity duration estimation is done.
22
Q
1. Your IT project is progressing well and is on schedule when a vendor sends you an e-mail stating that the equipment delivery will be delayed by a week due to severe snow
storm on the East Coast. Which of the documents would best capture the impact of the
delay on the project schedule?
A. Risk register
B. Issue log
C. Network diagram
D. Work breakdown structure
A
1. C: The project network diagram represents activities and their logical relationships, dependencies, and sequence; thus, the network diagram will best capture the impact of the delay on the project schedule. The work breakdown structure is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables, but it does not focus on the duration of the project activities. The risk register would show an increase in project risk but would not help to determine the impact of a delay on the project schedule. An issue log will also capture the root cause, person assigned, due date, and other factors, but will not give out much information about the impact of the delay on the project schedule.
23
Q
```23. Your IT project has ten team members, and recently you have hired three more database developers. You are using a time-phased graphical display of activity start dates, end dates, and durations for tracking progress and reporting to the team. Which chart are you using?
A. Milestone chart
B. Work breakdown structure
C. Network diagram
D. Gantt chart```
A
1. D: A bar chart or Gantt chart is a time-phased graphical display of activity start dates,
end dates, and durations. It is useful for tracking progress and reporting to the team
and can be easily modified to show the percentage of completed work. As the project
progresses, bars are shaded to show which activities are now complete. The work
breakdown structure is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work
to be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the
required deliverables, but it does not focus on the duration of the project activities. A
milestone chart is similar to a bar chart, but only shows major events. It is a good tool
for reporting to management and customers. This type of chart is reserved for brief,
high-level presentations as too much detail may be undesirable and distracting to senior
management. A network diagram is a schematic display of the sequential and logical
relationships of the project activities. It shows dependencies and the order in which
activities in a project must be performed.
24
Q
```24. You are overseeing a project to implement a web-based traffic monitoring system. You have requested three programmers, three database developers, and two testers; senior management only approved five team members for your project. Which one of the following may you use to produce a resource-limited schedule by letting the schedule slip and cost increase in order to deal with a limited amount of resources, resource availability, and other resource constraints?
A. Resource leveling
B. Fast-tracking
C. Crashing
D. Critical path method```
A
1. A: Resource leveling is used to produce a resource-limited schedule by letting the
schedule slip and cost increase in order to deal with a limited amount of resources,
resource availability, and other resource constraints. It can be used when shared or
critically required resources are only available at certain times, are in limited quantities, or when resources have been over allocated. Fast-tracking is the technique of doing critical path activities in parallel when they were originally planned in series. Crashing is the technique of adding additional resources to a project activity to complete it more
quickly. The critical path is the longest path through a network diagram and determines
the shortest time to complete the project as well as any scheduling flexibility. It is not
the project schedule, but it indicates the time period within which an activity could be
scheduled considering activity duration, logical relationships, dependencies, leads, lags,
assumptions, and constraints.
25
Q
```25. Steve is the project manager for a construction project to convert an old nursing home into a new multistory office complex. The architectural design and site surveys are completed, and Steve is now waiting for the clearance and permit from the city to start the construction. This is an example of which kind of dependency?
A. Mandatory dependency
B. Internal dependency
C. External dependency
D. Discretionary dependency```
A
1. C: External dependencies are driven by circumstances or authority outside the project and must be considered during the process of sequencing the activities. Internal dependencies are based on the needs of the project and are mostly under the control of the project team. Mandatory dependencies are mandatory and unavoidable dependencies that are inherent in the nature of the work or are contractually required. They are like laws of nature and are also called “hard logic.” Discretionary dependencies are also called “preferred logic” or “soft logic” as they are the preference of the project manager and the team members. These dependencies may be determined by best practices or by local methodology and may vary from project to project.
26
Q
1. Your team has been working with the WBS for a while and has completed the
decomposition of the work packages. After a week, the team finalized the estimates of all activities and completed the network diagram. Which of the following activities will be the next to concentrate on for the project manager?
A. Develop a preliminary schedule and get the approval from the team members
B. Finalize the project scope statement
C. Use the precedence diagramming method for sequencing the activities
D. Develop the risk management plan and add it to the total project management plan
document
A
1. A: The project manager should now focus on developing the preliminary schedule and get the approval from the team members. Finalizing the project scope statement should have been completed prior to completing the WBS. The team members have completed the network diagram, which suggests that the activities sequencing is also completed. Since the project schedule is an input to risk management, developing the risk management plan should be done once the schedule is completed.
27
Q
1. Which of the following is FALSE about analogous estimating?
A. It measures the project parameters such as budget, duration, size, complexity,
and duration based on the parameters of a previous similar project and historical
information.
B. It is usually done during the early phase of the project when not much information is
available.
C. It uses a bottom-up approach.
D. It usually is the overall project estimate given to the project manager from