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What are the variations worldwide in terms of adolescence school?

School structure
School quality and
Adolescents educational performance


What change during the age of adolescence (1890 to 1920) with regard to adolescent education

States began to pass laws requiring school attendance
beyond the primary grades (through the early teens)! Today, education is mandatory until age 16


What are some challenges for adolescents?

Storm and stress
Changing relationships
Can be frustrating for adolescents who prefer to be obtaining job-specific skills, but are forced to take further years of general education.


What are some difficulties for secondary school teachers?

Storm and stress, changing relationships, expectations
Difficult to find a level of teaching that will appeal to all adolescents schools have a Comprehensive education of a variety of topics, however adolescents have unique interests


What 3 types of secondary schools exist in Europe?

College preparatory school (50%)
Vocational school (25%) (Focused on professions like auto mechanic and plumbers)
Professional school (25%) (One specific skill, like teaching)


What are the advantages of this European system?

Specific, useful training and Clear idea of their chosen occupation


What are the disadvantages

Pressure to decide early and Lose out on exposure to diverse information and experiences


What are the goals of universities?

Discipline-specific knowledge
People skills
Research and planning skills
Thinking skills
Independent thinking and intellectual exploration


What are the outcomes of post secondary?

Employment prospects
Financial benefits Chance of unemployment decreases as you get more education, rate of unemployment is lowest
Transferable skills
Improved self concepts and psychological well being
Social bonds, professional training, knowledge and identity development


What are some of the subcultures in post secondary?

Collegiate (sorority/fraternity, party)
Vocational (focus on gaining skills and getting degree)
Academic (Drawn to ideas, knowledge and studying)
Rebel (deeply engaged with ideas, actively non conformist, skeptical of instructors, and selectively studious)


What are MOOC's

Massive open online courses


What are the advantages of moocs?

Less expensive
More freedom
More opportunity


What are the disadvantages of Mooc's?

Require a great deal of self discipline
Fewer opportunities for interpersonal development
Less hands on


What are some other factors influencing student experience?

lives outside of school: Parents, Friends & peers, Leisure, Cultural beliefs and Work (for later)


How can parents influence school experiences?

Parenting style (authoritative associated with best education outcome
Expectations for achievement
Involvement --> implications? If parents involvement is beneficial then we need to get parents involved in education


How can friends and peers influence school experience?

Influence attendance, homework, effort, grades. Parallel outcome to friends
(i.e., High achieving friends will encourage high achievement (vice versa). Comparisons among peers
Lower academic self concepts and Expectations for academic attainment


What is a growing expectation as individuals approach emerging adulthood?

Prepare to become 'full members' of society and Adolescence as a time to prepare for adult roles


What was the history of adolescent work in the 17th and 18th centuries?

Boys worked on the farm and Girls cared for domestic animals, household work


What was the history of adolescent work in the 18th and 19th centuries?

Decline in farming (<40%). Industrialization like Factories, coal mines and processing plants with Long hours, dangerous conditions, health hazards


What was the early 1900's like?

age of adolescence: Laws restricting times and places children and adolescents could work


What happened in the 1930's to 1940's?

rise in schooling in adolescents


What happened post WWII?

Combined school with part time work


What happened at the end of the 20th century?

~80% of high school students working


What are male and female adolescent's typical first jobs?

Boys= yard work and females= babysitting


What are the typical high school jobs and hours?

Majority involve restaurants and retail
Limited skills/experience required, Repetitive, monotonous. Average 15-20 hours/week


What are the benefits of adolescent jobs?

Money (shopping), gain/learn responsibility, independence and work ethic, develop occupational skills (time management, work experience) and broaden social networks


What are the costs of work during adolescence?

Reduced leisure time and Additional stress. >10 hours/week detrimental to school performance, psychological adjustment, and sleep in high school


What are some work and behaviour problems that tend to occur?

More likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, other drug. Occupational deviance common occurrence (Stealing supplies, food etc., >60 % of adolescents)
Possible reasons: Boredom, no personal investments, little supervision


What are high school jobs generally viewed as?

Few see job as basis for future career. Not building towards long term goals and Generally viewed as temporary and transient. 'Real jobs’ as coming after completion of education and/or training


What type of work do emerging adults begin to seek?

Start to consider jobs that will form the foundation for career and Start to seek identity-based work. Jobs that could lead to long-term occupation, personal fulfillment