What are the variations worldwide in terms of adolescence school?
School quality and
Adolescents educational performance
What change during the age of adolescence (1890 to 1920) with regard to adolescent education
States began to pass laws requiring school attendance
beyond the primary grades (through the early teens)! Today, education is mandatory until age 16
What are some challenges for adolescents?
Storm and stress
Can be frustrating for adolescents who prefer to be obtaining job-specific skills, but are forced to take further years of general education.
What are some difficulties for secondary school teachers?
Storm and stress, changing relationships, expectations
Difficult to find a level of teaching that will appeal to all adolescents schools have a Comprehensive education of a variety of topics, however adolescents have unique interests
What 3 types of secondary schools exist in Europe?
College preparatory school (50%) Vocational school (25%) (Focused on professions like auto mechanic and plumbers) Professional school (25%) (One specific skill, like teaching)
What are the advantages of this European system?
Specific, useful training and Clear idea of their chosen occupation
What are the disadvantages
Pressure to decide early and Lose out on exposure to diverse information and experiences
What are the goals of universities?
Discipline-specific knowledge People skills Research and planning skills Thinking skills Independent thinking and intellectual exploration
What are the outcomes of post secondary?
Financial benefits Chance of unemployment decreases as you get more education, rate of unemployment is lowest
Improved self concepts and psychological well being
Social bonds, professional training, knowledge and identity development
What are some of the subcultures in post secondary?
Collegiate (sorority/fraternity, party)
Vocational (focus on gaining skills and getting degree)
Academic (Drawn to ideas, knowledge and studying)
Rebel (deeply engaged with ideas, actively non conformist, skeptical of instructors, and selectively studious)
What are MOOC’s
Massive open online courses
What are the advantages of moocs?
What are the disadvantages of Mooc’s?
Require a great deal of self discipline
Fewer opportunities for interpersonal development
Less hands on
What are some other factors influencing student experience?
lives outside of school: Parents, Friends & peers, Leisure, Cultural beliefs and Work (for later)
How can parents influence school experiences?
Parenting style (authoritative associated with best education outcome
Expectations for achievement
Involvement –> implications? If parents involvement is beneficial then we need to get parents involved in education
How can friends and peers influence school experience?
Influence attendance, homework, effort, grades. Parallel outcome to friends
(i.e., High achieving friends will encourage high achievement (vice versa). Comparisons among peers
Lower academic self concepts and Expectations for academic attainment
What is a growing expectation as individuals approach emerging adulthood?
Prepare to become ‘full members’ of society and Adolescence as a time to prepare for adult roles
What was the history of adolescent work in the 17th and 18th centuries?
Boys worked on the farm and Girls cared for domestic animals, household work
What was the history of adolescent work in the 18th and 19th centuries?
Decline in farming (<40%). Industrialization like Factories, coal mines and processing plants with Long hours, dangerous conditions, health hazards
What was the early 1900’s like?
age of adolescence: Laws restricting times and places children and adolescents could work
What happened in the 1930’s to 1940’s?
rise in schooling in adolescents
What happened post WWII?
Combined school with part time work
What happened at the end of the 20th century?
~80% of high school students working
What are male and female adolescent’s typical first jobs?
Boys= yard work and females= babysitting
What are the typical high school jobs and hours?
Majority involve restaurants and retail
Limited skills/experience required, Repetitive, monotonous. Average 15-20 hours/week
What are the benefits of adolescent jobs?
Money (shopping), gain/learn responsibility, independence and work ethic, develop occupational skills (time management, work experience) and broaden social networks
What are the costs of work during adolescence?
Reduced leisure time and Additional stress. >10 hours/week detrimental to school performance, psychological adjustment, and sleep in high school
What are some work and behaviour problems that tend to occur?
More likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, other drug. Occupational deviance common occurrence (Stealing supplies, food etc., >60 % of adolescents)
Possible reasons: Boredom, no personal investments, little supervision
What are high school jobs generally viewed as?
Few see job as basis for future career. Not building towards long term goals and Generally viewed as temporary and transient. ‘Real jobs’ as coming after completion of education and/or training
What type of work do emerging adults begin to seek?
Start to consider jobs that will form the foundation for career and Start to seek identity-based work. Jobs that could lead to long-term occupation, personal fulfillment
Some emerging adults actively explore options, what does this entail
Systematically pursue options until right fit is found
Some (many) emerging adults meander, what does this entail?
Take any job to pay bills until something better comes along
Periods of unemployment or part-time employment common
Often ‘fall into’ a job in emerging adulthood but Rarely viewed as the ultimate goal.
Meandering can serve a function
Why do the majority never find the identity based work they seek?
and Difficulty finding the right fit
What were the traditional views on occupational choice?
Had little say: Boys: farming, hunting and Girls: household, child care, gathering
Pros: Security, gradual preparation for job but Cons: Narrow, limited, disregard for individual preferences or talent
What are the modern day pros and cons of finding an occupation?
Complex and diverse economies. Pros: Significantly wider range of occupation options
and Opportunity for identity-based work Cons: Have to find a place within diversity of choice
and Have to be able to achieve chosen occupation
How does “what you want to be when you grow up” change?
In emerging adulthood there is an increasing reflection on possible selves and includes occupational goals
What is donald super’s stages of occupational goals?
Crystallization (ages 14-18): Learn about interesting occupational fields
Specification (ages 18-21): Focus on specific occupation; begin to pursue education /training
Implementation (ages 21-24): Complete education/training, enter job
Stabilization (ages 25-35): Establish self in career
Consolidation (ages 35+): Seek advancement
Why does one theory not fit it all?
Ignores modern occupation development challenges like Dual-career life (e.g., mother and out-of-home occupation)
not a Linear path: Most change career at least once
Age ranges: Education stretching out further over time and Taking time off (e.g., maternity/paternity leave, gap year)
What are Holland’s personality categories and suitable occupations
Realistic (physical activity and applying practical knowledge)
Investigative (scholarly fields)
social (working with people)
Conventional (division of responsibility, requires little responsibility)
Enterprising (leadership role, managing others)
What does Holland suggest about his personality categories and occupations?
Happiest and most successful if there’s a match between personality qualities and corresponding occupation
What is the strong-campbell vocational interest inventory?
30-45 min career assessment test
What are the limitations of Hollands personality categories?
Not mutually exclusive categories
Variety of personalities with one occupation and Individual may fit well with many occupations
What is increasing in terms of gender and occupational goals
Steep increase in proportion of women in workplace. Women just as likely to be employed as men in emerging adulthood
but, Gender composition differences remain in certain jobs
What jobs are mainly held by women?
Service sector (e.g., teacher, nurse, secretary, childcare worker)
What jobs are mainly held by men?
Sciences, math, computer sciences
e.g., engineer, chemist, surgeon, computer software designer
What are the causes of occupational gender differences?
and Women anticipate difficulties of balancing work and family
what are some changing patterns?
Men and women equally likely to become lawyers, medical doctors but
“Women’s jobs” lower paying and lower status than “men’s jobs” even within high-status professions