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Flashcards in Identity development Deck (40)
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What do growing cognitive capacities lead to?

Changing views


What is self reflection?

adolescents begin to think about themselves in ways that children cannot


What are some emerging questions about the self?

Self-conceptions (how we think about ourselves)
Self-esteem (how we feel about ourselves) Identities (who we are)


What are self conceptions?

Ways individuals think about, understand and describe themselves


What are self conceptions like in younger children?

External, concrete traits in childhood


What are self conceptions like as an adolescent?

More internal/private, complicated in adolescence


How do self conceptions become more abstract?

Self as a concept (more trait focused)
E.g., I have dogs vs I'm caring and nurturing
Abstract generalizations
(e.g., I am tolerant)
Actual vs. possible selves
Possible: ideal & feared. Possible selves become more realistic in emerging adulthood


How do self concepts become more complex?

Especially from early to middle adolescence. Can be contradictory – still trying to organize aspects of the self
False self:Awareness of exhibiting behaviour that does not represent what they are actually thinking or feeling
To impress or conceal aspects of the self (e.g., insta vs. finsta)


How do self conceptions become more differentiated?

More subtle description and Consideration of contextual/situational factors (e.g., shy around new people, loud and funny with friends)


How do self concepts become more integrated?

Recognition of discrepancies. Movement towards a consistent, coherent idea of the self (e.g., happy sometimes, sad sometimes = sensitive/emotional)


What is self esteem?

A persons overall sense of worth and well-being. Set of positive or negative evaluations and feelings that people hold about themselves


What is the rosenberg self esteem scale?

Baseline self-esteem: relatively stable. Changes occur slowly over extended period of time (e.g., decreases from childhood into early adolescence)
Barometric self-esteem: fluctuating
and Short-term changes that are Contextually determined
(Swings wider & more frequent in early adolescence)


When does self esteem tend to decline?

Declines in early adolescence. inflated self-esteem in childhood. Puberty & new awareness of body image and Evaluations from others (e.g., romantic partners)


when does self esteem tend to rise?

in late adolescence into emerging adulthood. Focus on physical appearance lessens, Improved relations with parents (increased feelings of acceptance). More control over social contexts


What are the reciprocal effects of self esteem?

Feeling accepted & approved by others
Relationships with parents
Approval from adults outside family
School success


What is self concept vs. Identity?

Distinct but related terms
Self conceptions: how we see ourselves
Identity: who we are
Collection of important concepts that define the individual. More detailed, organized sense of who they are and what is important


What is erikson's theory?

Each period of life is characterized by a distinct ‘crisis’. Adolescent crisis: identity vs. identity confusion which is the Period of struggle in the course of forming identity. Triggers self-reflection, motivation to explore choices, and ultimately commitment. Identity confusion: Failure to establish commitments in these areas by end of adolescence


What are the identity formation domains of the identity vs. role confusion stage?

Identity formation domains: love, work, ideology


What is the psychosocial moratorium aspect of identity vs. role confusion stage?

Psychosocial moratorium
Postponed adult responsibilities. Period of freedom to explore
Possible selves, interests, beliefs, talents, roles, etc.


What is James' marcias identity status theory?

There are 4 identity statuses: diffusion (no exploration and no commitment), Foreclosure (no exploration, just commitment), Moratorium (Just exploration, no commitment) and achievement (both)


Which identity status is the best for the positive development adjustment

Diffusion < Foreclosure < Moratorium < Achievement


What outcomes is diffusion associated with?

Apathetic, disconnected relationships and school difficulties, psychological problems


What outcomes is foreclosure associated with?

close minded, rigid, resistant to change, higher on conformity, obedience to authority


What outcomes is
moratorium associated with?

Open minded, thoughtful, anxious, less decisive


What outcomes is achievement associated with?

decision making, problem-solving, better relationships, personal adjustments, school adjustments, self directed, cooperative


When does identity development typically take place?

Primarily takes place in emerging adulthood
Recall: emerging adulthood as a time for identity exploration, self focus, possibilities, commitment


What are some limitations of the identity status model?

Achievement status often not achieved in adolescence
Erikson’s model biased towards male development
Erikson’s model biased towards individualistic societies


What are individualistic vs collectivistic societies

Individualistic cultures:independent self. Encouraged to think highly of oneself, to explore, to be unique and independent
Collectivistic cultures: interdependent self
Encouraged to consider the interests of the group, not to pursue personal interests/gains at expense of the group


How is the identity status model narrow (limitation)?

Does not proceed through predictable set of stages
Cannot be applied to everyone


How is the identity status model outdated?

Postmodern identity most common Complex: comprised of range of unique factors for individualized identity
Conflicting: multiple, sometime inconsistent identities
Variable: across context and time