What do growing cognitive capacities lead to?
What is self reflection?
adolescents begin to think about themselves in ways that children cannot
What are some emerging questions about the self?
Self-conceptions (how we think about ourselves)
Self-esteem (how we feel about ourselves) Identities (who we are)
What are self conceptions?
Ways individuals think about, understand and describe themselves
What are self conceptions like in younger children?
External, concrete traits in childhood
What are self conceptions like as an adolescent?
More internal/private, complicated in adolescence
How do self conceptions become more abstract?
Self as a concept (more trait focused)
E.g., I have dogs vs I’m caring and nurturing
(e.g., I am tolerant)
Actual vs. possible selves
Possible: ideal & feared. Possible selves become more realistic in emerging adulthood
How do self concepts become more complex?
Especially from early to middle adolescence. Can be contradictory – still trying to organize aspects of the self
False self:Awareness of exhibiting behaviour that does not represent what they are actually thinking or feeling
To impress or conceal aspects of the self (e.g., insta vs. finsta)
How do self conceptions become more differentiated?
More subtle description and Consideration of contextual/situational factors (e.g., shy around new people, loud and funny with friends)
How do self concepts become more integrated?
Recognition of discrepancies. Movement towards a consistent, coherent idea of the self (e.g., happy sometimes, sad sometimes = sensitive/emotional)
What is self esteem?
A persons overall sense of worth and well-being. Set of positive or negative evaluations and feelings that people hold about themselves
What is the rosenberg self esteem scale?
Baseline self-esteem: relatively stable. Changes occur slowly over extended period of time (e.g., decreases from childhood into early adolescence)
Barometric self-esteem: fluctuating
and Short-term changes that are Contextually determined
(Swings wider & more frequent in early adolescence)
When does self esteem tend to decline?
Declines in early adolescence. inflated self-esteem in childhood. Puberty & new awareness of body image and Evaluations from others (e.g., romantic partners)
when does self esteem tend to rise?
in late adolescence into emerging adulthood. Focus on physical appearance lessens, Improved relations with parents (increased feelings of acceptance). More control over social contexts
What are the reciprocal effects of self esteem?
Feeling accepted & approved by others
Relationships with parents
Approval from adults outside family
What is self concept vs. Identity?
Distinct but related terms
Self conceptions: how we see ourselves
Identity: who we are
Collection of important concepts that define the individual. More detailed, organized sense of who they are and what is important
What is erikson’s theory?
Each period of life is characterized by a distinct ‘crisis’. Adolescent crisis: identity vs. identity confusion which is the Period of struggle in the course of forming identity. Triggers self-reflection, motivation to explore choices, and ultimately commitment. Identity confusion: Failure to establish commitments in these areas by end of adolescence
What are the identity formation domains of the identity vs. role confusion stage?
Identity formation domains: love, work, ideology
What is the psychosocial moratorium aspect of identity vs. role confusion stage?
Postponed adult responsibilities. Period of freedom to explore
Possible selves, interests, beliefs, talents, roles, etc.
What is James’ marcias identity status theory?
There are 4 identity statuses: diffusion (no exploration and no commitment), Foreclosure (no exploration, just commitment), Moratorium (Just exploration, no commitment) and achievement (both)
Which identity status is the best for the positive development adjustment
Diffusion < Foreclosure < Moratorium < Achievement
What outcomes is diffusion associated with?
Apathetic, disconnected relationships and school difficulties, psychological problems
What outcomes is foreclosure associated with?
close minded, rigid, resistant to change, higher on conformity, obedience to authority
What outcomes is
moratorium associated with?
Open minded, thoughtful, anxious, less decisive
What outcomes is achievement associated with?
decision making, problem-solving, better relationships, personal adjustments, school adjustments, self directed, cooperative
When does identity development typically take place?
Primarily takes place in emerging adulthood
Recall: emerging adulthood as a time for identity exploration, self focus, possibilities, commitment
What are some limitations of the identity status model?
Achievement status often not achieved in adolescence
Erikson’s model biased towards male development
Erikson’s model biased towards individualistic societies
What are individualistic vs collectivistic societies
Individualistic cultures:independent self. Encouraged to think highly of oneself, to explore, to be unique and independent
Collectivistic cultures: interdependent self
Encouraged to consider the interests of the group, not to pursue personal interests/gains at expense of the group
How is the identity status model narrow (limitation)?
Does not proceed through predictable set of stages
Cannot be applied to everyone
How is the identity status model outdated?
Postmodern identity most common Complex: comprised of range of unique factors for individualized identity
Conflicting: multiple, sometime inconsistent identities
Variable: across context and time
What are identity orientations?
Relative importance/value that individuals place on different identity attributes when constructing their self-definitions
What are the cheek and colleagues aspects of identity?
What is individual identity orientations?
Personal, private, intrapsychic experiences, traits and views (e.g., dreams, imagination, values, thoughts, emotions, self-knowledge)
Personal aspects to the individual that are important in defining identity
What is relational identity orientation
Importance of interpersonal aspects of identity, such as relationships with others, qualities of relationships, feelings of connectedness
(e.g., being a good friend, feeling connected to others, having close bonds )
Aspects of identity tied into relationships/social interactions
What is public identity orientation?
Importance of public aspects of identity such as reputation, public image, popularity, attractiveness to others (e.g., others’ impressions of you, physical appearance, social behaviour)
Distinction between private and public self-consciousness (self-monitoring
Does not mean ‘false’ identity
What is collective identity orientation?
Identity derived from a shared sense of belonging to a group, often expressed through a group’s cultures and traditions (e.g., community belonging, political commitment, language)
Individual’s cognitive, moral, and emotional connections with broader community/group/institution
What is social identity?
An individual’s association with or perceived belonging to a group (e.g., cultural identity, sports team )
Sense of pride based on group membership
Association with group (and characteristics central to the group) are taken on as part of their own identity
(e.g., traditions, values) Often interconnected to collective identity
What is ethnic identity?
What it means to be a member of an ethnic minority within a society dominated by the majority culture
In adolescence, growing cognitive awareness of being a member of ethnic minority and the meaning behind that
and how others see them (prejudice, stereotypes)
What is jean phinney’s responses to awareness of ethnicity?
Four statuses: Marginality (low identification with ethnic group and low identification with majority group)
Assimilation ( Low identification with ethnic group and high identification with majority group)
Separation (high identification with ethnic, low majority culture)
Biculturalism (High both)
What is the AIQ
aspects of identity questionnaire. Assesses identity orientations: individual, public, relational, collective