What are some examples of externalizing problems?
delinquency, substance use, risky driving, unprotected sex (usually thought of as undercontrolled)
What are some examples of internalizing problems?
Depression, Anxiety, Loneliness. Suicide, eating disorders (usually thought of as overcontrolled)
What are the shared characteristics of internalizing and externalizing problems?
More common in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Often go together (e.g., aggressiveness and delinquency or depression and anxiety) and gender dominated (i.e., externalizing problems more common in males ad internalizing more common in females)
What are externalizing problems and what is the motivation for them?
Create difficulties in a persons external world. Includes problem behaviours and risk behaviours
Motivation: excitement, desire for intense experiences. Often lack parental monitoring or Lack of self control
What are individual factors for externalizing problems?
Gender, ethnicity, aggressiveness, sensation seeking, cognitive deficits, impulse control, optimistic bias
What are socialization sources for externalizing problems?
Family structure, family process, parenting styles, friends, school and neighbourhood, media, legal system, cultural beliefs
What is the leading cause of death in 16-24 year olds??
16-24 year olds: highest rates of auto accidents, injuries, fatalities. Leading cause of death in adolescence and emerging adulthood
DUI, speeding, not wearing seatbelts, violating traffic signs, texting, tailgating, dangerous lane changes
What are the contributing factors to crash risk?
Inexperience and Types of risks taken while driving
How they drive
No seat belts
Invulnerability and optimistic bias Parental involvement and monitoring. Friends (take more risk when friends are present or watching)
Why is drivers education generally not effective in preventing risky driving?
Little interest, License earlier (optimism bias), Increased confidence
What does work in preventing risky driving?
Parental involvement and Graduated driver licensing
What is delinquency and who is most likely to be delinquent?
it is a Crime committed by juveniles. More likely to commit crimes and to be victims of crimes if you are an adolescent or emerging adult or male. Often occurs in groups. Minor vs. serious crimes e.g., underage drinking vs. sexual assault. Most adolescents commit at least one criminal act
What is the rate of juvenille delinquency
10% of all young people commit 2/3 of all offences
Who were the Colombine shooters?
Dylan Klebold & Eric Harris. Ages 17 & 18. Killed 13, injured 24 in school shooting History of legal and behavioural problems
What are Moffit’s types of delinquency?
Adolescence limited delinquency (ALD) and Life course persistent delinquency (LCPD)
What is adolescence limited delinquency?
No signs of probelms in infancy/childhood. Occasional criminal activity between 12-25 and typically minor crimes. No signs of problems in adulthood
What is life course persistent delinquency?
Early patterns of problems from birth, higher likelihood of ADHD and LD’s. Raised in high risk environment and continued criminal activity in adulthood.
What are the subsequent risks associated with the types of delinquency?
LCPDs: ↑ mental health problems & work problems
Financial problems: LCPD > ALD > Non-delinquent adolescents
Substance use: LCPD > ALD > Non-delinquent adolescents
What is a limitation of the types of delinquency
Difficult to classify some youth. Emphasis on stability and continuity vs. severity.Examples?
History of delinquency but turning point in adulthood, No history of delinquency but ongoing pattern starting in adolescence, One severe incident
How can delinquency and crime be prevented?
Wide variety of available prevention programs but variation in efficacy of prevention programs
What are the overall results of these prevention programs and why?
Overall, poor results Peer contagion. Why don’t they work? Resistance and timing
What is the multi-systemic approach for preventing delinquency and what are the outcomes?
Addresses risk factors are several levels (e.g., parents, job training, neighbourhood resources). Redirects focus into socially constructive directions. Outcomes: Reduces arrests, out-of-home placements, likelihood of future prison time and has cost-saving benefits
What are internalizing problems?
Create difficulties in a person’s internal world. Tend to have parents who exercise tight psychological control. Experience distress (Depression, suicide, withdrawal, loneliness, Anxiety, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive)
Depressed mood vs Major depressive disorder
Depressed mood: Enduring sadness, No other symptoms of MDD, Most common (1/3) and Peaks in adolescence
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD):Psychological diagnosis, Includes DM or reduced interest
4+ other symptoms
What are the causes of depressed mood?
Conflict with peers/family, Disappointment or rejection in love, Poor school performance
What are the causes for major depressive disorder?
Diathesis-stress model: Genetic risk
and Environmental risks (family, peer). Being female: Gender roles, Stress, Devote feelings to personal relationships
What is the 3rd most common death in 15-19 year olds?
Suicide and rate doubles in emerging adulthood.
When do suicide attempts usually occur?
Attempts tend to occur as symptoms lessen (either because planning suicide can increase mood because they know they have a way out or when their in their peak of depression they don’t have the energy to plan and do it)
Who is more likely to attempt suicide?
Females more likely to attempt andMales more likely to actually kill themselves
What are the treatment options and what is most effective?
Antidepressants (medication) or Psychotherapy like cognitive-Behaviour Therapy (Recognize, analyze, and challenge negative attributions, Changing behaviours). Most effective: combination of medication and psychotherapy
What is resilience?
Good outcomes in spite of serious threats to adaptation and development
What are some protective factors for resilience?
High intelligence, One caring adult, Healthy school environment, Religious beliefs and practices
Why is emerging adulthood a critical period for resilience?
Turning point opportunities. Ability to: Make life decisions, Leave high risk/unhealthy environments and explore new possibilities