Science - Chapter 3 - Test 10/31/13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Science - Chapter 3 - Test 10/31/13 Deck (76)
1

Definition:

everything that has mass and takes up space

matter

2

All _____ around you is matter.

All stuff around you is matter.

3

Name a few examples of matter.

  • air
  • plastic
  • metal
  • wood
  • glass
  • paper
  • cloth

4

Definition:

the study of matter and how matter changes

chemistry

5

In chemistry, a _______ is a single kind of matter that is ______, meaning it always has a specific makeup, or composition.

In chemistry, a substance is a single kind of matter that is pure, meaning it always has a specific makeup, or composition.

6

Every form of matter has ____ kinds of properties.

Every form of matter has two kinds of properties.

7

Definition:

a characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance

physical property

8

Name a few examples of physical properties.

  • mass
  • volume
  • density
  • size
  • color
  • teture
  • taste
  • smell
  • hard
  • soft
  • slippery

9

Definition:

a characteristic of a substance that describes its ability to change into different substances

chemical property

10

Name a few examples of chemical properties.

  • silver that tarnishes
  • basketball hoop that rusts
  • charcoal briquettes
  • eaten apple that turns brown

11

Who was the Greek philosopher that proposed that all matter was made of four elements?

Empedocles

12

What were the four elements that Greek philosopher, Empedocles, proposed matter was made of?

  1. air
  2. earth
  3. fire
  4. water

13

Definition:

a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance by chemical or physical means

element

14

In the 1600s, chemists found that matter is made of more than ____________.

In the 1600s, chemists found that matter is made of more than 100 substances called elements.

15

Elements are represented by ________.

Elements are represented by one or two letter symbols.

16

Name a few examples of element symbols.

  • C - Carbon
  • O - Oxygen
  • Ca - Calcium

17

Definition:

made of two or more substances that are together in the same place but their atoms are not chemically bonded

mixture

18

Definition:

mixtures where different parts can be seen and they usually can be separated out

heterogeneous mixture

19

Definition:

an mixture mixed evenly so that you can't see the different parts

homogeneous mixture

20

Name a few examples of a homogeneous mixture.

  • sugar
  • coffee
  • air
  • honey

21

Name a few examples of a heterogeneous mixture.

  • cookie dough ice cream
  • fruit salad
  • beach sand

22

Definition:

a measure of the force of gravity on you

weight

23

When will the force of gravity be more?

If the planet is more massive than Earth, the force of gravity will be more.

24

When will the force of gravity be less?

If the planet is less massive than Earth, the force of gravity will be less.

25

Definition:

the amount of matter in an object

mass

26

If you travel to the moon, the amount of matter in your body (your mass) _______.

If you travel to the moon, the amount of matter in your body (your mass) does not change.

27

The mass of an object is a _______ property.

The mass of an object is a physical property.

28

To measure the properties of matter, scientists use a system called the ____________, abbreviated SI

To measure the properties of matter, scientists use a system called the International System of Units, abbreviated SI

29

The SI unit of _____ is kilogram (kg).

The SI unit of mass is kilogram (kg).

30

All matter has mass and ________.

All matter has mass and takes up space.

31

The amount of space that matter occupies is called its ______.

volume

32

Name 3 common SI units of volume.

  1. cm3
  2. Liter (L)
  3. milliliter (mL)

33

1 teaspoon of water has a volume of ________.

1 teaspoon of water has a volume of 5 milliliters.

34

Volumes of liquids are measure with a ________.

Volumes of liquids are measure with a graduated cylinder.

35

Volumes of solids are measure using the formula ________.

L x W x H

36

Definition:

 the measure of the mass of a material in a given volume

density

37

How do you calculate density?

38

________ has a density of 1 g / cm3

Water has a density of 1 g / cm3

39

Objects with densities greater than that of water will ______; more dense.

Objects with densities greater than that of water will sink; more dense.

40

Objects with densities less than that of water will ______; less dense.

Objects with densities less than that of water will float; less dense.

41

What does the mixture oil and vinegar tell you about the density?

Oil is less dense than vinegar so it moves to the top.

42

A _______ change alters the form or appearance of matter but does not turn any substance in the matter into a different substance.

physical

43

Name 2 examples of physical change substances.

  • sand sculpture
  • butter

44

A substance that undergoes a physical change is still the ________  substance after the change.

A substance that undergoes a physical change is still the same substance after the change.

45

Name 4 examples of physical changes.

  1. bending
  2. crushing
  3. breaking
  4. chopping

46

Name the 3 states of matter.

  1. solid
  2. liquid
  3. gas

47

Describe solid characteristics.

matter with a definite shape and volume

48

Describe liquid characteristics.

matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape

49

Describe gas characteristics.

matter that does not have a definite shaper or volume

50

A change in state such as from a solid → liquid or from a liquid → gas, is an example of a __________.

A change in state such as from a solid → liquid or from a liquid → gas, is an example of a physical change.

51

Give an an example of a physical change in state.

dissolving sugar in water

52

A _________ is a change in matter that produces one or more new substances.

A chemical change is a change in matter that produces one or more new substances.

53

Give an example of a chemical change.

hydrogen peroxide breaks down into water and oxygen gas when it’s poured on a cut on your skin

54

A chemical change produces _________ with new and different properties.

A chemical change produces new substances with new and different properties.

55

French chemist, __________, measured mass before and after a chemical change.

French chemist, Antoine Lavoisier, measured mass before and after a chemical change.

56

What did Antoine Lavoisier's data show?

His data showed that no mass was lost or gained during the change.

57

Definition:

the fact that matter is not created or destroyed in any chemical or physical change

law of conservation of mass

58

Give an example of a solid.

pencil

59

Describe the particles that make up a solid.

The particles are packed very closely together and vibrate in place (they move back and forward slightly).

60

The shape of a liquid may ___________, but its volume remains the same.

The shape of a liquid may change with its container, but its volume remains the same.

61

Describe liquid particles.

The particles of a liquid are packed closely together but they move around freely.

62

A liquid is also called a _____, meaning a ______.

A liquid is also called a fluid, meaning a "substance that flows".

63

Describe gas particles.

As gas particles move, they spread apart, filling all the space available

64

Definition:

The change in state from a solid to a liquid

melting

65

Melting occurs at a specific temperature, called the ________.

Melting occurs at a specific temperature, called the melting point.

66

The melting point of pure water is _____.

The melting point of pure water is 0oC.

67

Definition:

The change in state from a liquid to a solid

freezing

68

What is the freezing point of water?

0o Celcius

69

The freezing point of water is the _______ as its melting point.

The freezing point of water is the same as its melting point.

70

When water begins to freeze, its temperature stays at 0oC until freezing is _______.

When water begins to freeze, its temperature stays at 0oC until freezing is complete.

71

Definition:

the change in state from a liquid to a gas

vaporization

72

The temperature at which a liquid boils is called its _________.  

The temperature at which a liquid boils is called its boiling point.  

73

When water boils, vaporized water molecules form ______ below the surface.

When water boils, vaporized water molecules form bubbles below the surface.

74

Sublimation occurs when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a ______.

Sublimation occurs when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a gas.

75

 In places where the winters are cold, the snow may disappear even when the temperature ___________.

 In places where the winters are cold, the snow may disappear even when the temperature stays well below freezing.

76

Example: ______ is the common name for solid carbon dioxide

Example: dry ice is the common name for solid carbon dioxide

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