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Non-Vascular Plants

They are limited in the height to which they can grow because their system of transporting water up the stem of the plant is less efficient than that of vascular plants. Ex. mosses and liverworts.


What is excretion?

It is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism. It is an essential process in all forms of life. In single-celled organisms, waste products are discharged directly through the surface of the cell. In plants, waste is minimal and is eliminated primarily by diffusion to the outside environment. Animals have specific organs for excretion. 



• Organisms are individual living things that can carry out all basic life processes. Organisms take in materials, release energy from food, release wastes, grow, respond to the environment, and reproduce.
• Organisms may be made up of organ systems or may consist of a single cell, as in bacteria or protists.
• Examples include bacteria, amoebas, mushrooms, sunflowers, and humans.


What are simple machines?  How many types of simple machines are commonly considered?  Give examples.

A fundamental device for applying force.  At one point, it was felt that all complex machines consist only of these simple machines in different combonations.

The lever, axle, pulley, inclined plane, wedge, and screw are the classic simple machines




Biological organisms are often classified into "levels"  typically from smallest structural unit (cells) to the most complex. 

  1. Cells
  2. Tissues
  3. Organs
  4. Organ Systems
  5. Organisms



Which of the following shows the relative positions of the sun, Earth, and moon during a solar eclipse?


A. This question requires the examinee to recognize the effects of the relative positions of the sun, Earth, and moon. A solar eclipse can only occur when the moon moves directly between the sun and Earth, casting its shadow over part of Earth.


What is the difference between a convex and concave lens?

The main difference between concave and convex lens is that a concave lens is thinner at the center than it is at the edges, whereas a convex lens is thicker at the center than it is at the edges.

A convex lens is a converging lens; it focuses the light passing through it to a point. A convex lens is used to bend light in a magnifying glass so objects appear larger than they really are. A concave lens spreads out light rays that have been refracted through it.



Milky Way Galaxy

It has a diameter of about 100,000 light years. There are about 100 billion stars in it. contains clouds of dust and gas called nebulae, planets, and asteroids. Stars, dust, and gas fan out from the center of the galaxy in long spiraling arms. All objects in the galaxy revolve around the galaxy's center. The stars we see over our head every night are also members of the milky way family. Our sun is one of these stars and is located roughly 24,000 light years from the center of it.


Understand moon phases

The phases, or changes in appearance of the moon, depend on its position relative to the position of the sun. When the moon is between the sun and Earth, the side of the moon facing the Earth is dark. This is called a New Moon. As the moon travels eastward in its orbit, more of its sunlit side becomes visible to Earth and the moon is said to be waxing. As the moon orbits Earth, the side of the moon facing Earth eventually becomes fully lit. This is called a Full Moon phase. As the moon continues to around in its orbit, the lit portion of the moon visible to Earth becomes smaller, so the moon is now said to be waning. As it completes its revolution around Earth, the moon starts the cycle again as a New Moon


Label the parts of the animal cell.


States of Matter

Solid, Liquid, Gas

Don't forget plasma!


What is electrical energy?

Electrical energy is produced by the movement of electrically-charged particles (electrons). The movement of electrons through a conductor, such as a wire, is called current (or circuit) electricity. Lightning is an example of a giant spark of static electricity, or the sudden movement of electrons from a cloud to another surface.


What is Commensalism?

In a commensal relationship, members of different species live together, and one member benefits without seriously affecting the other party. As a rule, the animal that benefits is usually the physically smaller of the two. The commensal organism may depend on its host for food, shelter, support, or transportation. The animal that benefits is known as the commensal, or symbiont, while the nonbenefitting species is known as the host. For example, some flatworms live attached to the gills of the horseshoe crab, obtaining bits of food from the horseshoe crab's meals; the horseshoe crab is apparently unaffected.


Outer Planets

It consist of two gas giants—Jupiter and Saturn—and two ice giants—Uranus and Neptune. They often have dozens of satellites and rings composed of particles of ice and rock.


What is Newton's First Law of Motion?

Newton's First Law of Motion states that an object at rest will remain at rest and a body moving with a constant speed in a straight line will maintain its motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced external force. An example of force that opposes the motion of a body is friction.



the longest intervals of geologic time and are divided into smaller time intervals known as eras.


What are the differences between (domain) eukaryotes and (domain) prokaryotes?

Eukaryotes consist of all organisms with cells that have true nuclei and membrane-bound organelles. Four kingdoms—animals, plants, protists, and fungi—fit into this domain.


Prokaryotes have neither nuclei nor organelles with membranes. True bacteria fit in this domain.



• Tissues are made up of cells that are similar in structure and function and which work together to perform a specific activity.
• Examples of specific tissues include blood, nerve, and bone.
• Humans have four basic types of tissues: connective, epithelial, muscle, and nerve.


What is a mixture?

A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined


Current Electricity

Current electricity comes from a stream of electrons moving through a conductor, such as copper. Some materials allow charges, usually electrons, to flow through the material. These materials are called conductors, and the flow of charge is called current.

Some materials are better conductors than others; they offer very little resistance to the flow of electrons. Most metals are very good conductors—copper, silver, gold, aluminum, or steel, for example.

However, not all substances are good conductors. Materials that do not conduct electricity well are called insulators. Rubber, plastic, wood, cloth, glass, and dry air are good insulators; they have very high resistance to the flow of electrons.


Big Bang Theory

12 to 14 billion years ago, the universe consisted of a small, extremely dense, and extremely hot point called a singularity. It expanded very rapidly from this hot, dense state into the vast and much cooler cosmos we currently inhabit.


Pacific Ring of Fire

It is an area where large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean; 90 percent of the world's earthquakes and 81 percent of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Pacific Ring of Fire


Organ Systems

  • Organ systems are groups of two or more organs that work together to perform a specific function for the organism.
  • Examples include circulatory system, nervous system, and skeletal system.
  • The human body has 11 organ systems—circulatory, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, integumentary, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, and skeletal.


law of superposition

oldest rocks are found on the bottom and newer rocks are found on the top; helps make a timeline


What is the formula 6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2?

This is the chemical formula for photoosynthesis.  

6 Carbon dioxide + 6 Water + Light energy → Glucose + 6 Oxygen


What is amplitude?

A measure of the distance between a wave's crest and trough



The regular changes in the elevation of the ocean surface. The cause of tides was not well understood until Sir Isaac Newton applied the law of universal gravitation to them. Newton showed that there is a mutually attractive force—gravity—between any two bodies, such as Earth and the moon. The pull of the moon's gravity is greater at parts of Earth's surface that are closer to the moon and less at more distant locations. Ocean tides result from differences in the gravitational attraction exerted upon different parts of Earth's surface by the moon and, to a lesser extent, by the sunTo illustrate how tides are produced, consider Earth as a rotating sphere covered to a uniform depth with water. The gravitational pull is strongest on the side of Earth closest to the moon and weakest on the far side of Earth from the moon. This difference causes Earth to be stretched slightly. The shape of the solid Earth is not affected much by this difference in pull. However, because water is a fluid, it can easily flow from location to location in response to differences in the pull of the moon's gravity. Because of the rotation of Earth, tides change four times a day—a high tide followed by a low tide and then the cycle is repeated. Water marks for high and low tides vary depending on the time of year and location.



Label the parts of a flower


The Sun

The closest star to Earth and the most closely studied. It is a medium-sized yellow star and is over 4 billion years old. It is made of extremely hot gas that is denser in the interior and less dense near the surface. The outermost layer, the corona, is composed of ionized gases that have speeds great enough to escape the gravitational pull of the


What is DNA?

deoxyribonucleic acid; contains the codes for protein, which are building blocks of life