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Research has found which of the following outcomes occur for students via revision and rewriting?

Students often incorporate new ideas when they rewrite.


With a teacher's guidance, a class brainstorms main ideas, topics, or concepts from a text. Students choose a select number of these ideas and copy them onto separate index cards. The students then individually review the text, recording any supporting evidence on the note card with the applicable main idea. This activity would be an excellent pre-lesson for teaching which skill set?

Organizing ideas for writing a cohesive and persuasive essay or research paper that asserts supported arguments with valid supporting evidence.


Of the following statements, which adheres to Information Literacy Standards?

Students accessing information must critically evaluate it and its sources before using.


a parent is reading a familiar book one-on-one with a child. The parent asks the child to point to the words of the story as the parent reads them aloud. this activity would be most effective for enhancing the child's awareness of:

the tracking of print.
a book handling skill that helps them exercise knowledge of several print concepts.


one principle of both first - and second - language acquisition is that learning a first or second language occurs:

in predictable stages and patterns of development.
cross-linguistic and cross-cultural research -- they exhibit common patterns of language development.


for a beginning reader to succeed in recognizing the meaning of the word that the reader has just decoded - which of the following must be true:

the word is already part of the reader's oral vocabulary.


which of the following early literacy skills is most likely to transfer from a first language when a child is learning a second language?

an understanding of the functions and uses of print and writing.


which of the following emergent readers whose clear evidence of having begun to develop phonemic awareness:

- a child who can identify the initial sound of spoken words.


prior to having a guest presenter in class, an upper elementary teacher could best facilitate listening comprehension by

guiding students in developing a list of questions they would like to have answered by the presentation


a second-grade teacher begins a read-aloud of an info passage by asking students to think of a good title while they listen. after reading, the teacher-writers down titles the students suggest, and the class members discuss which would be most accurate and informative. this activity promotes students development of:

listening for main ideas and an author's purpose


when reading aloud, the student is able to recognize written words rapidly and accurately with appropriate expression. This indicates the student has acquired which skills?

reading fluency:
accuracy, appropriate rate, and prosody.
what is prosody: reading connected text with appropriate expression -- they are indicators of reading fluency.


phonics instruction is an effective tool for developing early literacy when it is reinforced with

decodable reading material


which statement about the encoding and decoding of text is accurate:

students should be taught decoding and encoding together because these are reciprocal processes that mutually reinforce each other. They rely on the same foundation of knowledge.


Before learning how to spell words beginning with str-, the students will need to

learn how to spell words that begin with st-


an intervention focused on prosody (read something and use emotion) would be most appropriate for addressing the needs of which students who have not yet developed reading fluency?

a student who pauses often to decode words when reading aloud


several 3rd graders lack automatic word recognizing of grade level sight words. which strategy is most effective for them?

providing them with explicit instruction in the spelling of target words and frequent opportunities to use words in writing activities


which processes do elementary students develop through independent reading?

acquiring new vocabulary


graphic organizers (semantic webs and clusters) most help students learn new vocabulary words by helping them gain awareness of

interrelationships of new vocab words


in what situation would the reader need to apply evaluative reading comprehension skills?

an editor detecting unsupported assumptions in a news article, which assesses the soundness of the writer's reasoning. the ability of a reader to make judgments about the text using criteria external to a text.


a child's general knowledge and life experience effect which literacy skills the most?

ability to comprehend grade-level text.
Literal and inferential compression by the ability to visualize and interpret explicit and implicit information conveyed in the text.


a 2nd-grade teacher reads aloud informational texts about content-area topics. this enhances reading comprehension by promoting their:

knowledge of academic concepts and language


a 4th-grade teacher introduces students to important concepts and new vocab before they participate in a hands-on science activity. after that, which strategy reinforces their learning of new vocab?

asking students to use target words as they discuss what they learned from the activity.


a 4th-grade teacher wants to use literature to familiarize students with a variety of cultural traditions. which genre is most effective to do this?

mythology, which is a literary oral tradition of many diverse cultures.


which strategy helps a reader recognize instances of bias in a magazine article about the history of TV?

identifying adjectives that indicate author's positive or negative attitudes toward TV


which features are included in a social studies book are most effective to better understand content-area vocab?

the glossary


a teacher best promotes students' ability to identify the structure of the informational or expository text by teaching them how to:

create a graphic organizer of the text as they read.
text structures are conventional sets of organizational features or patterns for ordering ideas in a text


as part of a unit on media literacy, a 3rd-grade teacher plans an activity where they compare 3 photographs taken by different photogs and published in different newspapers. this activity would be most effective to teach which concepts:

a photographer makes choices when composing an image that can convey a particular point of view.