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Flashcards in Scientific processes Deck (45):
1

What is an aim?

A precise statement of why a study is taking place

2

What is a hypothesis?

A precise, testable research prediction

3

Describe directional hypotheses

States exactly what outcome is expected using comparative language to describe each condition

4

Describe non-directional hypotheses

States that there will be a difference in the conditions but not what the difference will be

5

When would a directional hypothesis be used?

When previous research predicts a likely direction of the results

6

What is sampling?

The selection of participants to represent a wider population

7

Describe random sampling

Each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected. This could be achieved by putting names in a hat

8

Describe opportunity sampling

Selecting participants who are available and willing to take part, such as people passing on the street

9

What is volunteer sampling?

Individuals select themselves as participants by volunteering to take part

10

Describe systematic sampling

Taking every nth person from a list to create a sample

11

What is stratified sampling?

A small-scale reproduction of a population by dividing a population into characteristics important for the research, then the population is randomly sampled within each stratum

12

What are pilot studies?

A small-scale reproduction of a population by dividing a population into characteristics important for the research, then the population is randomly sampled within each stratum

13

What is the purpose of pilot studies? What should you also discuss when discussing pilot studies in-depth?

To find any problems with the study before money and time is invested in it; the floor and ceiling effect - catching a test that is too hard or too easy will benefit the test as the effect of the variable will not be able to be measured properly

14

Describe the repeated measures experimental design

Experimental design where each participant performs all conditions of an experiment

15

Describe the independent measures experimental design

Experimental design in which each participant performs one condition of an experiment

16

What is the matched pairs experimental design?

Experimental design where participants are in similar pairs, with one of each pair performing each condition. Participants are matched on one personality trait relevant to the study

17

What is opportunity sampling?

Selecting participants who are available and willing to take part, such as people passing on the street

18

What is volunteer sampling?

Individuals select themselves as participants by volunteering to take part

19

What are behavioural categories?

Dividing target behaviours into unique and exhaustive subsets of behaviours through use of coding systems

20

What is event sampling?

Recording all instances of a behaviour in the appropriate column when they happen

21

What is time sampling?

Recording all occurrences of behaviour at set time intervals

22

What is operationalisation?

The process of defining variables into measurable and observable factors so a cause and effect can be established

23

What are extraneous variables and what increases when these are controlled?

A variable irrelevant to the study that could still affect the results; internal validity

24

What are confounding variables?

A variable related to the study that isn't the IV but could still affect the results

25

What are co-variables?

The variables investigated in a correlational study. The relationship between them is investigated, not cause and effect

26

What is randomisation and why might it be used?

To prevent the order of the experiment becoming an extraneous variable the researchers may randomise parts of the procedure, e.g. mixing the order of questions

27

What is counterbalancing and when and why might it be done?

Participants are split into two groups, with half doing condition A first and the other group doing condition B first; To counteract order effects, as it distributes order effects evenly across both conditions; In a repeated measures design

28

What is random allocation and why is it done?

Participants are randomly allocated to one condition; to reduce individual variables and selection bias

29

What is standardisation and why is it done?

Ensuring all participants experience the process in the same way; prevents the procedure becoming an extraneous variable and also increases reliability

30

What are demand characteristics and what does this reduce?

Participants may guess the aims/hypotheses of the experiment and change their behaviour and so frustrate the aim of the research, which reduces internal validity

31

What are investigator effects?

A research effect where researcher features influence participant responses, such as body language giving away the correct answer

32

What four responsibilities do researchers have to participants?

- Right to withdraw
- Protection from harm
- Informed consent
- Confidentiality

33

What is peer review and why are they carried out?

Scrutiny by experts of research papers to determine scientific validity; to prevent invalid research being published and maintaining a standard of research

34

What impact does clinical psychology have on the economy?

Treatments allow individuals to live independently, stay in the community rather than institutions and be in work

35

What are the four features of science?

- Falsifiable predictions
- Shared paradigms
- Empirical methods
- Tries to determine causality

36

What does Popper discuss?

We can't prove theories, but we can falsify them (prove them wrong), and psychological theories should be falsifiable to be considered a science. Some psychological theories can't be falsified, such as the psychodynamic unconscious. Also discusses paradigm shift

37

What does Kuhn discuss?

A theory can only be scientific if the people working in the field have a common set of shared beliefs about the fundamentals in the field (a paradigm). Psychology is therefore a prescience because it doesn't have a paradigm yet

38

What does Kant discuss?

A theory can only be scientific if it is based on publicly available evidence gathered through observation. This is known as empiricism

39

What is objectivity?

Observations made without bias

40

What is replicability?

Being able to repeat a study to check the validity of the results

41

How does a correlational hypothesis start?

There will be a relationship between...

42

What are the positive and negative evaluations of the peer review process?

- There can be a publication bias where negative findings are not published

+ Funding allocation - more funding can be given to institutions who publish more research

43

What should be included and in what order, in an APA reference?

Surname, initials, date, title, publisher, place of publication

44

What are the features of science?

F-falsifiable
R-replication
O-objective
G-tries to establish general laws

45

What does the "P" in p<0.05 stand for?

The probability that the results are due to chance