Flashcards in SDL-6 Myelin Disorders Deck (15):
Multiple sclerosis is more common in (males/females) with a __:__ male-female ratio.
Male:Female = 1:2
Multiple sclerosis is caused by the _________________________________.
Autoimmune destruction of myelin via CD 4+ and 8+ T cells.
The most common areas of incidence in the body for multiple sclerosis are:
I. Optic nerve
II. Spinal cord
III. Brain stem
Multiple sclerosis occurring in the optic nerve may cause ____________.
Unilateral visual impairment
Multiple sclerosis occurring in the spinal cord may cause:
I. Motor/sensory impairment
II. Bladder control problems
Multiple sclerosis occurring in the brain stem may cause:
I. Cranial nerve deficits
Increased immunoglobulins may be detected in cases of MS by the presence of a(n) ______________________ in electrophoresis of patient plasma or CSF.
Acute and fulminant onset, followed by death in 1-6 months describes (Balo/Shilder/Marburg) multiple sclerosis.
Presentation of concentric sclerosis and a life expectancy of two years describes (Balo/Shilder/Marburg) multiple sclerosis.
Large plaques greater than 2-3 cm and commonly occurring in children describes (Balo/Shilder/Marburg) multiple sclerosis.
The disease in which autoantibodies are produced against aquaporin receptors, commonly involving the optic nerve and spinal cord and causing synchronous blindness and paraplegia, is known as _____________.
Devic's disease (neuromyelitis optica)
_________________ is a demyelinating disease that occurs acutely, is monophasic, and affects both children and adults. It causes headache, lethargy, and may progress to coma. It has a very fast progression of symptoms and has been shown to cause death in 20% of its cases.
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
_____________ is a demyelinating disease that commonly occurs by bacterial infection following a urinary tract infection. Occurs in children and adults.
Acute Necrotizing Hemorrhagic Encephalomyelitis (ANHE)
_____________ is a demyelinating disease that occurs following rapid correction of electrolyte imbalance. The rapid correction most commonly leads to osmotic demyelination of neurons in the pons and internal capsule.
Central Pontine and Extrapontine Myelinolysis (CPM)