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Flashcards in Search for causes of Perio Disease Deck (48):
1

define epidemiology

study of health and disease within the total population rather than an individual

2

what are risk factors

anything that increases the host susceptibility to perio disease

3

name 5 risk factors for perio

1. heredity
2. personal behavior
3. physical environment
4. socioeconomic status
5. gender: males have more perio than females

4

why do epidemiologists study perio disease? (2)

1. determine its occurrence in the population
2. identify risk factors for perio disease

5

what is prevalence?

number of ALL cases of a disease (old and new) that are identified in a specific population at a given point of time

6

what is incidence?

number of NEW disease cases in a population that occurs during a specific interval of time

7

perio level in regard to:
education
age
access to dental care

education: increased perio on lower level education
age: older you are, more perio
access to dental care: barriers such as driving or paying

8

T/F: it is easier to evaluate a population for perio disease than caries

false: easier to evaluate caries

9

what variables must we consider when evaluating perio disease?

tissue color changes and swelling
degree of bleeding
probe depths

10

what is one of the most widespread diseases in adults

perio disease

11

before 1960, clinicians believed ____ was a mechanical irritant to tissues that caused perio disease

calculus

12

before 1960: _____ + _____ = disease

calculus deposits + tooth = disease

13

between 1975-1985: ___ + ______ =disease

bacteria + tooth = disease

14

the interaction of ______ controls whether disease is present or not

the host and the pathogenic bacteria

15

what are 3 factors that increase host susceptibility to perio disease

1. oral conditions (crowding)
2. systemic disease (diabetes)
3. genetics

16

the current views are that professional prophylaxis is scheduled how often?

as frequently as needed

17

if there is no improvement in the patients mouth, whos fault is it?

it is not the patients fault

18

current views: _____ + ______ = disease

bacteria + host response to bacterial infection = disease

19

disease progression means ____

disease gets worse

20

what theory is used to understand how untreated perio progresses

intermittent progression theory

21

does destruction occur in all parts of the mouth at the same time?

no

22

risk factors are factors that ____ or ____ the liklihood of developing perio disease

modify or amplify

23

what are the major established risk factors for perio

1. bacterial pathogens
2. cigarette smoking
3. local oral conditions
4. diabetes mellitus

24

the _____ to bacteria is responsible for tissue destruction seen in periodontist

body's response

25

_____ are etiologic agents in perio disease

bacteria

26

what part of the mouth harbors the most bacteria

the tongue

27

T/F: most bacteria are harmful

false; most are innocuous (not harmful)

28

what is the most abundant type of cell

bacteria

29

top 4 places where bacteria are found

1. sponge
2. money
3. cell phone
4. keyboard

30

type of bacteria according to shape: cocci, bacilli, vibrios, spirilla, spirochetes

cocci: circular, round
bacilli: rods
vibrios: rods
spirilla: spiral shaped
spirochetes: long, slender, slightly coiled

31

what is a cell wall

tough protective layer that encloses bacteria

32

____ bacteria require oxygen to live, while ____ bacteria cannot live in the presence of oxygen

aerobic, anerobic

33

____ bacteria can exist with or without oxygen

facultative

34

organisms as disease progresses:
nonmotile---
gram +---
aerobic---
cocci---
less leukocytes----

motile
gram -
anerobic
rods
more PMNs

35

free floating bacteria are also known as?

planktonic

36

T/F: 99% of bacteria on Earth are attached

True

37

most bacteria live in complex communities called ____

biofilm

38

bacteria form rapidly on almost any ___ surface

wet

39

approximately ____ different bacterial species and subspecies are capable of colonizing the mouth

700

40

In Health: what is the number of bacteria and how many are gram +

100-1000 healthy bacteria
and 75-80% are gram +

41

In Gingivitis: what is the number of bacteria from one site, and how many gram + and gram -.

1000-100,000 bacteria
and equal portions of gram - and gram +

42

In periodontitist: what is the number of bacteria from one site, and are gram + or gram - found in chronic perio?

100,000 to 100,000,000 bacteria from one site
and mostly gram - and motile bacteria found in chronic perio, as well as anerobic

43

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans AA is associated with what type of perio, and capable of what?

found in aggressive perio and 25% of chronic perio
capable of evading normal host immune response and destroying gingival connective tissue and bone

44

Tannerella forsythus (bf) has what significance with perio, and is the most common species in what cells

most significant risk factor that distinguishes individuals with perio from those who are healthy
most commonly found in epithelial cells recovered from perio pockets

45

porphyromonas gingivalis pg is found in what type of perio and is commonly seen in what type of disease sites. It can also inhibit migration of what

found in low numbers in health in gingivitis
found more frequently in aggressive forms of perio
commonly seen in disease sites that are worsening
can inhibit migration of PMNs across the epithelial barrier

46

____ is the transfer of periodontal pathogens from the oral cavity of one person to another.

transmission

47

what is the primary way saliva and its bacterial contents are transmitted

kissing

48

define communicable

a disease that may be passed from one person to another by direct or indirect contact via substances such as inanimate object