Section 1 - Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

AQA GCSE PE > Section 1 - Anatomy and Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Section 1 - Anatomy and Physiology Deck (27):
1

Name the 5 functions of the skeletal system.

(1) Support
(2) Protection
(3) Movement
(4) Blood cell production
(5) Mineral storage

2

Name the 4 types of bones.

(1) Long bones
(2) Short bones
(3) Irregular bones
(4) Flat bones

3

Give 2 examples of each type of bone.

FLAT:
Cranium
Sternum

SHORT:
Carpals
Tarsals

LONG:
Femur
Humerus

IRREGULAR:
Pelvis

4

Name the 8 types of joint movement.

(1) Flexion
(2) Extension
(3) Adduction
(4) Abduction
(5) Rotation
(6) Circumduction
(7) Plantar-flexion
(8) Dorsi-flexion

5

Name the types of joint and give an example.

Ball and socket:
Hip
Shoulder

Hinge:
Knee
Ankle
Elbow

Condyloid:
Wrist

Pivot:
Neck

6

Name the types of movement that occurs at a ball and socket joint.

Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Rotation
Circumduction

7

Name the types of movement that occur at a hinge joint.

Flexion
Extension

8

Name the types of movement that occur at a condyloid joint

Flexion
Extension
Adduction
Abduction
Circumduction

9

Name the types of movement that occur at a pivot joint.

Rotation

10

What to ligaments attach ?

Bone to bone

11

What do tendons attach ?

Muscle to bone

12

Name the features in a synovial joint.

Ligaments - hold the joint together

Cartilage - covers end of bones for friction free surface

Synovial membrane - releases synovial fluids to lubricate joint

Bursae - fluid filled sacs which reduce friction between bones/tissues

13

Name the 2 types of muscle

(1) VOLUNTARY (SKELETAL)

attached to the skeleton and are under your control. they help to move the body

(2) INVOLUNTARY (SMOOTH)

work internal organs without effort from the person e.g. muscles in blood vessels control amount of blood flowing to voluntary muscles.

14

Give a sporting example for each type of movement and the muscle involved.

FLEXION:
- hamstrings at the knee
- bring foot back before kicking a ball

EXTENSION:
- triceps at the elbow
- forehand in badminton

PLANTAR-FLEXION:
- gastrocnemius at the ankle
- standing on the toes in ballet pointe work

DORSI-FLEXION:
- at the ankle
- heel side turn in snowboarding

ROTATION & CIRCUMDUCTION & ADDUCTION:
- latissimus dorsi at the shoulder
- butterfly stroke

ABDUCTION:
- gluteals at the hip
- pushing forward when running

15

What are antagonistic muscles ?

Pairs of muscles that work against each other to produce movement. One relaxes (antagonist) and other contracts (agonist)

16

Name some antagonistic muscle pairs.

KNEE:
flexion - hamstring = agnostic
quads = antagonist

extension - vice versa

ELBOW:
flexion - bicep = agonist
triceps = antagonist

extension - vice versa

HIP:
flexion - hip flexors = agonist
gluteus = antagonist

extension - vice versa

ANKLE:
plantar-flexion - gastrocnemius = agonist
tibialis anterior = antagonist

dorsi-flexion - vice versa


17

Name the 4 types muscle contraction.

(1) Isometric contraction - muscle stays same length

(2) Isotonic contraction - muscle changes length

(3) Concentric contraction - muscles shortens, pulls on bone to produce movement e.g upward phase of bicep curl.

(4) Eccentric contraction - muscle lengthens, gives control of speed e.g. downward phase of bicep curl

18

Name the 2 types of muscle fibre.

SLOW TWITCH:

Type I - low intensity aerobic work, less fatigue

FAST TWITCH:

Type IIA - anaerobic work, can be improved through endurance training

Type IIX - anaerobic work, greater force, fatigue quickly

19

Name the 2 heart circuits.

PULMONARY:

right side - lungs - left side

SYSTEMIC:

left side - body - right side

20

What is tidal volume ?

The amount of air you breathe in or out during one breath. It increases during exercise.

21

What is vital capacity?

The most air you could possible breathe in after breathing out the largest volume of air you can.

22

What is a spirometer ?

Measures the volume of air moving in and out of someone’s lungs.

23

What is aerobic exercise and the equation ?

Activity with oxygen

Glucose + Oxygen —> CO2 + Water + Energy

24

What is anaerobic activity and it’s equation ?

Activity without oxygen

Glucose —> lactic acid + energy

25

What are the short term effects of exercise in the muscular system ?

- release of extra energy generates heat which makes you hot

- lactic acid causes muscle pain

- EPOC

- periods of rest are needed

26

What are the short term effects of exercise in the respiratory system ?

- pectorals expand the lungs to allow extra air

- muscles in abdomen pull ribcage down so you breathe out faster

27

What are the short term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system ?

- heart rate increases

- stroke volume increases

- cardiac output increases

- blood pressure increases = increased blood and oxygen supply.