Flashcards in Section 5 - Sport Psychology Deck (37)
What is a skill ?
an ability learnt through practice
What is an ability ?
a person's set of characteristics that affect their potential to learn a skill
What are the 3 stages of learning ?
- cognitive stage = just started learning (beginner)
- associative stage = learnt the techniques and focusing on improving them
- autonomous stage = experienced at skill and can almost do it automatically
What are the different types of skill e.g. open/closed ?
- open / closed
- basic / complex
- low / high organisation
- self / externally paced
- gross / fine
What are open / closed skills ?
open = changing environment, have to adapt based on external factors
closed = not affected by external factors
What are basic / complex skills ?
basic = doesn't require much concentration (running)
complex = lots of concentration (volley in football)
What are low / high organisation skills ?
low = easily broken down into steps (front crawl)
high = can't be broken down (cartwheel)
What are self / externally paced skills ?
self = performer decides when to start
external = starts because of external factors
What are gross / fine skills ?
gross = involves power and large muscle groups (long jump)
fine = involves smaller muscle groups and accuracy (darts)
What are the 6 different types of practice ?
What is massed practice ?
practicing without a break - works best on beginners
What is distributed practice ?
practicing with breaks for rest - works well for complex skills due to the difficulty
What is fixed practice ?
repeating the same technique in one situation - useful for closed skills
What is variable practice ?
repeating technique in different situations - useful for open skills
What is whole practice ?
practicing the whole technique in one go - good for basic skills
What is part practice ?
breaking the skill down and practicing each part separately
Why do people goal set ?
- gives you something to aim for
- reaching goals give you confidence
What are performance goals ?
improving your own personal performance
What are outcome goals ?
performing better than other people e.g. winning
What are performance goals usually better ?
- more realistic (for beginners)
- you can control the outcome goal e.g. jump 5cm further
What is used to help goal set ?
Specific - target and training plan
Measurable - how much progress has been made
Accepted / achievable - agreed with coach
Realistic - you can reach them, physically able, resources, time, facilities
Time-bound - set a deadline for your goal, keeps you motivated
What are the advantages and disadvantages of VERBAL guidance ?
- combined with other type of guidance
- helpful for experienced learns (technical lang.)
- can be given during demonstration
- less useful for high organisation and complex skills
- confusing to beginners
What are the advantages and disadvantages of VISUAL guidance ?
- good for beginners (can copy skill)
- can teach low organisation skills
- bad for high organisation and complex skills
What are the advantages and disadvantages of MANUAL guidance ?
- get the 'feel'
- works for all skill levels
- performers begin to rely on it
- difficult in big groups
What are the advantages and disadvantages of MECHANICAL guidance ?
- useful for beginners because they feel safe when practicing dangerous skills
- good for high organisation and complex skills
- may not be able to perform skills without equipment
- difficult in larger groups
What are the types of feedback ?
What is intrinsic feedback ?
what it 'feels' like - best for experienced performers - they can judge whether they've done well
What is extrinsic feedback ?
someone else tells you how you've done - suited to beginners
What is concurrent feedback ?
received during a performance