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1

Declension of the definite article - singular 

 

           m.    f.        n.
Nom    ὁ     ἡ       τό
Acc     τόν   τήν   τό
Gen    τοῦ   τῆς   τοῦ
Dat     τῷ    τῇ      τῷ 

2

Declension of the definite article - plural 

3

How is the def. art. an anchor in a sentence? 

  • See οἱ, and you know the noun it goes with is subject, plural, mascu- line.
  • See τόν, and you know the noun it goes with is object, singular, mascu- line, and so on.
  • So even if you do not know how the NOUN changes, the def. art. will tell you exactly the function in the sentence of the noun it agrees with.

4

Indefinite article 

There is no indefinite article (‘a’, ‘an’) in Greek, only the absence of the definite article. Thus ὁ ψόφος = ‘the noise’, but ψόφος = ‘a noise’. 

5

ἀκρόπολις, ἡ

Acropolis 

6

ἆρα

indicates a question

7

βαίνω (βα-)

I come, go, walk

8

γῆ, ἡ

land

9

δέ

and, but

10

δεῦρο

over here

11

ἐγώ

I (sometimes emphatic)

12

ἔπειτα

then, next

13

καί

and, also, even, actually 

14

καλός, ή, όν

beautiful, fine, good

15

ναύτης, ὁ

sailor 

16

νεώριον, τό

dockyard

17

ὁ, ἡ, τό

definite article singular m, f, n

18

Παρθενών, ὁ

The Parthenon

19

πλοῖον, τό

vessel, ship 

20

ῥαψωδός, ὁ

rhapsode

21

σύ

you (singular)

22

τε ... καί 

Notice that Greek often includes a τε and καί to form a closely linked pair; it means (literally) ‘both ... and’, though in English this often seems strained, and it may seem more natural, when translating, to omit the ‘both’.

23

τίς

what? who? 

24

O (addressing someone) 

25

Conjugation of the verb βαίνω in the present indicative active 

‘I go/am going/do go’

1s    βαίν- ω    
2s    βαίν- εις    
3s    βαίν- ει   
1p    βαίν- ομεν   
2p    βαίν- ετε   
3p    βαίν- ουσι(ν)  

26

What are 'thematic' verbs? 

A ‘thematic’ verb is one consisting of stem + ‘thematic’ vowel + person endings. The ‘thematic’ vowels are: 

1s.-ο-         1pl.-ο-
2s.-ε-        2pl.-ε-
3s.-ε-        3pl.-ο-

 

 

27

What is a COMPOUND VERB? Use βαίνω to provide examples.

In Greek you can make COMPOUND VERBS from simple verbs like βαίνω by adding a prefix. We have seen some examples of this:

εἰσ-βαίνω ‘I go into, on board’ (‘into-go-I’)

κατα-βαίνω ‘I go down’ (‘down-go-I’)

28

The five properties of verb forms

  1. Tense
  2. Mood
  3. Voice
  4. Person
  5. Number 

29

The vocative case

The VOC. is the ‘calling’ CASE – used when someone is being called or addressed (cf. ‘Play it again, Sam’). Its form is frequently identical to the nom, but is sometimes distinguished from the nom. in the s.; in the pl., nom. and voc. are always the same. 

The voc. is often prefaced with ὦ in Greek, and is usually found with IMPERATIVES (as βαῖνε) or second-person verbs (e.g. βαίνεις and βαίνετε, ‘you are going’). 

30

Imperative form for ω verbs 

Singular: βαῖν-ε 

Plural: βαῖν-ετε 

31

An ambiguity with imperatives and indicatives

The pl. imperative mood, βαίνετε is identical to that of the second person pl. indicative mood.

So βαίνετε could mean either ‘go!’ (pl.) or ‘you (pl.) are going’.

Only the context can give you the right answer.

32

How to make an imperative negative 

Put μή before the imperative:


μὴ βαῖνε ‘do not go!’ (s.) 

μὴ βαίνετε ‘do not go!’ (pl.)

33

μέν…  δέ

The particles μέν and δέ are frequently used to make a contrast. They can never be the first word in a phrase and the words are never used side by side. The words also follow negatives.

 

Can often be translated as A BUT B, or WHILE A, B. 

 

μέν ... δέ ... δέ ... δέ ... δέ ... δέ (etc.) is used to construct a (usually uncontrasted) list: ‘A and B and C and D and E’, etc.

34

Use of pronouns 

Pronouns can be used to emphasise the person in the verb-ending, e.g.:

τί πoιεῖς σύ; οὐδὲν ἔχω ἔγωγε.

35

ἀκούω

hear, listen 

36

ἀληθῆ

the truth

37

ἀλλά

but, alternatively 

38

βλέπω

look (at)

39

γάρ

for, because 

40

διώκω

chase, pursue

41

ἔγωγε

I at least/at any rate

42

εἰσβαίνω (εἰσβα-)

enter, board (literally, into-go)

43

καταβαίνω (καταβα-)

go/come down (literally, down-go)

44

μένω (μεινα-)

remain, wait for

45

μή

don't! 

46

οὐ, οὐκ, οὐχ

no, not 

47

οὐδέν

nothing 

48

οὖν

so, then, really, therfore 

49

τί

what?

50

ῡμεῖς

you (pl.)

51

φεύγω

flee, run away/off

52

ὡς

how!

53

διἁ τί

why? (literally, from what?) 

54

οὐδέ

And not (literally a concatenation of the two)

55

ποῖ;

to where? 

56

ποῦ;

where (at)?

57

οἴμοι

oh dear!

58

σεαυτόν

yourself

59

ἀκρῑβ-ῶς 

accurately, closely

60

βαθέως 

deeply

61

βοηθέω 

help, run to help

62

δηλόω 

show, reveal

63

κακῶς 

badly, evilly

64

καλῶς 

finely, beautifully

65

ὁράω 

see

66

ποιέω 

make, do

67

σαφῶς 

clearly

68

What are contract verbs and what kinds are there? 

Verbs ending in -ω like βαίνω are the ‘normal’ Greek verbs.

Verbs whose stem (the part that does not change) ends in a vowel have slightly different endings.

There are three kinds: 

α-contracts (e.g. ὁρά-ω);

ε-contracts (e.g. ποιέ-ω, ‘I do/make’);

ο-contracts (e.g. δηλό-ω, ‘I show’).

69

Vowel contractions: X + α

α + α    = ᾱ   
ε + α    = η   
ο + α    = ω  

70

Vowel contractions: X + ε

α + ε    = ᾱ   
ε + ε    = ει   
ο + ε    = ου   

71

Vowel contractions: X + ο

α + ο    = ω
ε + ο    = ου
ο + ο    = ου

72

Declining α-contract verbs: 


ὁρα-

1s. ὁρ-ῶ   
2s. ὁρ-ᾷς   
3s. ὁρ-ᾷ   
1p. ὁρ-ῶμεν   
2p. ὁρ-ᾶτε   
3p. ὁρ-ὦσι(ν)   

73

Declining ε-contract verbs: 


ποιέ-

1s. ποι-ῶ   
2s. ποι-εῖς   
3s. ποι-εῖ   
1p. ποι-οῦμεν   
2p. ποι-εῖτε   
3p. ποι-οῦσι(ν) 

74

Declining ο-contract verbs: 


δηλό-

1s. δηλ-ῶ  
2s. δηλ-οῖς  
3s. δηλ-οῖ  
1p. δηλ-οῦμεν   
2p. δηλ-οῦτε  
3p. δηλ-οῦσι(ν)

75

Contract imperatives: α-contracts 

ὁρά-

s. ὅρ-α ‘see!’ 


p. ὁρ-ᾶτε ‘see!’

76

Contract imperatives: ε-contracts 

ποίε-

s. ποί-ει ‘do!/make!’ 


p. ποι-εῖτε ‘do!/make!’

 

Pay particular attention to the accent on imperative s. active ποίει (‘do!’). This

distinguishes it from the third person s. indicative active ποιεῖ (‘he/she/it does’).

77

Contract imperatives: ο-contracts 

 

δήλο-

s. δήλ-ου ‘show!’ 


p. δηλ-οῦτε ‘show!’

78

Adverbs and form change 

Adverbs in Greek do not change form. 

79

Forming Greek adverbs

Adverbs (which do not change their forms) are mostly formed by substituting ς for the ν at the end of the m. gen. pl. form of the adjective. So most adverbs end with -ῶς or -έως.

80

What is a declension? 

A pattern of inflection according to grammatical case. 

81

How many declensions are there in Greek?

Broadly speaking, there are THREE DECLENSIONS in Greek.

- stems in α- (Type 1) 
- stems in ο- (Type 2) 
- all the rest (Type 3)

 

Each DECLENSION or TYPE has a number of sub-types, reflecting slight differ- ences in the endings used (these sub-types will be called 1a–d, 2a and b, and 3a–h).

82

Second declension nouns - Type 2a: ἄνθρωπος, ὁ ‘man/fellow’ 

              s.           pl.   
    Nom. ἄνθρωπ-ος    ἄνθρωπ-οι    
    Acc.  ἄνθρωπ-ον    ἀνθρώπ-ους
    Gen. ἀνθρώπ-ου    ἀνθρώπ-ων
    Dat.   ἀνθρώπ-ῳ     ἀνθρώπ-οις
    Voc.  ὦ ἄνθρωπ-ε

 

The endings are very similar to those for the masculine and neuter definite article in the present indicative active. Most 2a nouns are masculine, although there are some that a feminine or both (like this one). 

83

Second declension nouns - Type 2b: ἔργον, τό ‘task/duty/job/work’

              s.             pl.
    Nom. ἔργ-ον    ἔργ-α
    Acc.   ἔργ-ον    ἔργ-α 
    Gen.  ἔργ-ου    ἔργ-ων 
    Dat.   ἔργ-ῳ      ἔργ-οις

The endings of TYPE 2b nouns are similar to those of the neuter def. art. and the neuter forms of καλός. TYPE 2b nouns are all neuter. N. nouns are often inanimate, or regarded as effectively inanimate, and some diminutive, perhaps affectionate, like παιδίον ‘child, slave’ (!).

 

84

Ambiguities with neuter nouns

The nom. and acc. s. and nom. and acc. pl. of all n. nouns and adjectives are identical. Only the context of the sentence will tell you whether the noun in question is subject or object.

85

Neuter nouns and the verb

N. pl. subjects (normally) take a s. verb. 

86

ὁ ἄνθρωπος

the man; fellow

87

δύω

sink 

88

τὸ ἔργον

the task, work, job; duty

89

ὸ ἐμπόριον

the market-place

90

ἡμέτερος -ᾱ -ον 

our(s)

91

κακός ή όν 

bad, evil; cowardly; lowly, mean

92

ὁ κυβερνήτης 

the captain, helmsman

93

ὁ λέμβος 

the boat, life-boat

94

σῶος ᾱ oν 

safe

95

The ι,ρ,ε rule for adjectives 

Ιf an adjective ends in -ος in the m. nom. s. and its stem ends in ι, ρ, ε, it will follow the pattern of ἡμέτερος (i.e. it will have α instead of η in the f. s.).

For example, the f. nom. s. of ῡμέτερ-ος, ‘your(s)’, is ῡμετέρ-ᾱ, like ἡμετέρ-ᾱ, because its stem ends in ρ.

96

ἀπό 

from, away from + gen.

97

εἰς

into + acc.

 

'Get INTO the boat' (note difference from ἐν) 

98

ἐκ

from, out of + gen.

99

ἐν

in + dat.

 

'She swims IN the sea' (note difference from εἰς) 

100

πρός

to, towards + acc.

 

in the name of, from, under the protection of + gen

101

γε

at least, at any rate

102

What is a preposition? 

PREPOSITIONS are words like ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘below’, ‘towards’, ‘to’, followed by a noun, e.g. ‘in the house’, ‘to the beach’:

- They can indicate place or movement;
- They can express a relationship in terms of time (e.g. ‘after’); or
- They can indicate something more abstract like cause (e.g. ‘because of’).

103

'FIrst position' particles 

Three common ones: 

ἆρα which introduces a question when there is no interrogative word like ‘Who, What, Why?’ (e.g. ἆρα τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ὁρᾷς; lit. ‘[question] the men you see?’, ‘do you see the men?’)

ἀλλά ‘but’

καί ‘and’, ‘even’, ‘actually’

104

Postpositive’ particles

Most of the other particles you will meet for now are ‘postpositive’, lit. ‘after- placed’, and usually come SECOND in the sentence or clause to which they belong, e.g.

γάρ, γε, δέ, μέν, οὖν, τε.

105

Enclitics

These are words which have accents, but they give them to the previous word if possible.

106

Enclitic particles

γε

τε

με

εἰμι

107

ἀναβαίνω (ἀναβα-)

go up

108

ἀποθνῄσκω (ἀποθαν-)

die

109

ἀποχωρέω

go away, depart

110

ἐλθέ

come! go!

111

ἔχω (σχ-)

have, hold

112

θάλαττα, ἡ

sea

113

λέγω (εἰπ-)

say

114

νῦν

now

115

πλέω (πλευσα-)

sail

116

ῥίπτω

throw, hurl 

117

σῴζω

save, keep safe 

118

σωτηρίᾱ, ἡ

safety, salvation

119

φίλος, ὁ

friend

120

φίλος ή όν

dear, friendly, one’s own

121

φροντίζω

think; worry

122

Paradigm for εἰμί, ‘I am’

1s    εἰμί   
2s    εἶ    
3s    ἐστί  
1p    ἐσμέν  
2p    ἐστέ    
3p    εἰσί(ν) 

 

123

Paradigm for οἶδα, ‘I know’ 

1s    οἶδα   
2s    οἶσθα    
3s    οἶδε   
1p    ἴσμεν  
2p    ἴστε    
3p    ἴσασι(ν)

 

124

The complement: two principles 

  1. Same case before and after: the verb 'to be' takes the same case as the subject and its complement, which usually means the nominative.
  2. The complement does not usually have the definite article. 

125

Omission of the verb 'to be'

Quite often the verb ‘to be’ is omitted from a sentence (a feature called ‘ellipse’). So if you find a sentence without a verb, try some form of εἰμί, e.g.

Μέμνων καλός ‘Memnon handsome.’

126

ὅτι

that 

127

ᾱεί

always

128

ἄριστος η ον

best; very good

129

γιγνώσκ-ω (γνο-)

know; think; resolve

130

δῆλος η oν

clear; obvious

131

῞Ελλην, ὁ

Greek

132

ἔμπειρος oν

skilled, experienced

133

ἤ

or

134

μῶρος ᾱ oν

stupid; foolish

135

ναί

yes

136

ναῦς, ἡ

ship

137

παίζω (πρός + acc.)

play; joke (at)

138

περί

(+ acc.) about

139

πολλά

many things (acc.)

140

πῶς γὰρ οὔ;

of course

141

στρατηγός, ὁ

general (2a)

142

τὰ ναυτικά

lit. ‘the naval-things’, naval matters

143

τὰ στρατηγικά

lit. ‘the leader’s-things’, leadership, generalship

144

τὰ στρατιωτικά

lit. ‘the soldier’s-things’, military matters

145

Three ways that adjectives can be used as nouns

1. Neuter 'things' - The neuter plural form of an adjective is often used (with the neuter definite article) to mean things of that type, eg: 

    τὰ πολλά: ‘many things’
    τὰ ναυτικά lit. the naval-things, i.e. ‘naval matters’

2. Neuter abstract nouns - the neuter singular (with definite article) can also be used as an abstract noun: 

    τὸ καλόν: ‘the beautiful thing’, beauty 

3. Masculine and feminine ‘people’ - use of the definite article with the adjective to refer to people: 

    ἡ καλή, ‘the beautiful [f. s.] woman’

    οἱ σοφοί, ‘the wise [m. pl.] men’

146

Use of τε...τε and τε...καί

Both...and...

τε comes after the first item it will link (even between the definite article and its noun) and και comes before the second: 

 

ὅ τε Δικαιόπολις καὶ ὁ ῥαψῳδός, ‘[The] both Dikaiopolis and the rhap- sode.’

ὁρᾷ τε ὁ ἄνθρωπος καὶ οὐχ ὁρᾷ, ‘The man [both] sees and does not see.’