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1

The Greek Case System: functions of the nominative

Subject; predicate nominative; naming things

2

The Greek Case System: functions of the accusative

Direct object; motion toward; length of space or time 

3

The Greek Case System: functions of the genitive

1. One noun limiting or depending on another


2. Separation from; motion away from or out of

4

The Greek Case System: functions of the dative

1. Indirect object: ’to’ or 'for’


2. Instrumentality:’by' or 'with’. Usually does not require a preposition. 


3. Place or time when: 'at' or 'in’. Usually requires a preposition such as ἐν. More broadly, absence of motion. 

5

The Greek Case System: functions of the vocative

1. Allows the noun to be addressed directly. 

6

The Greek Case System: cases and motion 

7

παρά

 (+ acc.) past, along

8

ἀγαθός -ή -όν

good, noble, courageous

9

νικάω

win, defeat

10

τέλος

in the end, finally

11

ἐμός ή όν

my; mine 

12

λόγος, ὁ

Story, tale (2a)

13

σκοπέω

look (at), consider

14

ἀναχωρέω

retreat

15

ἐπειδή

when

16

ἐπί

(+acc) at, against, to attack

17

ταχέως

quickly

18

ὥσπερ

like, as

19

ἀπορί-ᾱ, ἡ

perplexity

20

βο-ή, ἡ 

shout

21

γίγν-ομαι

happen, be made, be born

22

δουλό-ομαι

enslave

23

ἔρχ-ομαι

go, come

24

θεᾱ-ομαι

observe, watch

25

μάχ-ομαι 

fight

26

τόλμ-α, ἡ

daring, courage

27

φοβέ-ομαι

be afraid of, fear

28

What is the middle voice used for?

The middle voice indicates that the subject is both the cause and the focus, the agent and experiencer, of the action expressed by the verb. 

 

29

Uncontracted middle verb conjugation: ἕρχομαι 

1s. ἔρχ-ομαι     I go, I am going 
2s. ἔρχ-ῃ (-ει)  you go, you are going
3s. ἔρχ-εται     he/she/it goes/is going
1p. ἐρχ-όμεθα    we go, we are going
2p. ἔρχ-εσθε     y’all go, y’all are going 
3p. ἔρχ-ονται    they go, they are going 

 

30

Middle imperative (based on ἔρχομαι)

s. ἔρχ-ου (s.), ‘go!’ 
p. ἔρχ-εσθε (pl.), ‘go!’

31

Contracted middle verbs: θεά-ομαι ‘I watch’ 

1s. α+ -ομαι  →   θε-ῶμαι    ‘I watch’
2s. α+ -ῃ     →   θε-ᾷ       ‘you watch’
3s. α+ -εται  →   θε-ᾶται    ‘he/she/it watches’
1p. α+ -ομεθα →   θε-ώμεθα   ‘we watch’
2p. α+ -εσθε  →   θε-ᾶσθε    ‘you watch’
3p. α+ -ονται →   θε-ῶνται   ‘they watch’

 

Middle imperative: 

α + -ου       →   θε-ῶ (s.), ‘watch!’
α + -εσθε     →   θε-ᾶσθε (pl.), ‘watch!’

32

Contracted middle verbs: φοβέ-ομαι ‘I fear, am fearing’ 

1s. ε+ -ομαι →    φοβ-οῦμαι     I fear
2s. ε+ -ῃ →       φοβ-ῇ         you fear
3s. ε+ -εται →    φοβ-εῖται     he/she/it fears
1p. ε+ -ομεθα →   φοβ-ούμεθα    we fear
2p. ε+ -εσθε →    φοβ-εῖσθε     y’all fear
3p. ε+ -ονται →   φοβ-οῦνται    they fear

Middle imperative: 

ε + -ου       →    φοβ-οῦ (s.), ‘fear!’
ε + -εσθε     →    φοβ-εῖσθε (pl.), ‘fear!’

33

Contracted middle verbs: δουλοῦμαι, ‘I enslave (for myself)’ 

1s. ο+ -ομαι   →     δουλ-οῦμαι I enslave
2s. ο+ -ῃ      →     δουλ-οῖ you enslave 
3s. ο+ -εται   →     δουλ-οῦται he/she/it enslaves
1p. ο+ -ομεθα  →     δουλ-ούμεθα we enslave
2p. ο+ -εσθε   →     δουλ-οῦσθε y’all enslave
3p. ο+ -ονται  →     δουλ-οῦνται they enslave 

Middle imperative: 

ο + -ου        →     δουλ-οῦ (s.), ‘enslave!’
ο + -εσθε      →     δουλ-οῦσθε (pl.), ‘enslave!’

34

First declension nouns: characteristics of types 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D

- 1A-C are all feminine. 1D are masculine. 
- ALL types have the same endings in the plural (as per fem. def. art.)
- 1A: endings same as fem def art
- 1B: replace -η with -ᾱ in the s. due to the ρ, ε, ι rule. 
- 1C: short α in the s. nom and acc, otherwise as per 1B
- 1D: Two subtypes: η- and -ᾱ in the nom, acc and dat s. endings. 

- In the gen and dat of all numbers, an accented ultima takes the circumflex.

35

Declension of noun type 1A: βοή, ἡ 

βοή, ἡ, ‘shout’ (1a)   

TYPE 1a nouns have endings in s. and pl. exactly like the f. def. art. 

Singular   
Nom. βο-ή    
Acc. βο-ήν   
Gen. βο-ῆς   
Dat. βο-ῇ    

Plural   
Nom. βο-αί   
Acc. βο-ᾱς   
Gen. βο-ῶν   
Dat. βο-αῖς  

36

Declension of noun type 1B: ἀπορία, ή 

TYPE 1b nouns replace the -η with -α (pronounced LONG) all the way through the singular. This is because their stem ends in ρ, ε, or ι. 

ἀπορία, ἡ, ‘perplexity’ (1b)   
s.
Nom. ἀπορί-ᾱ
Acc. ἀπορί-ᾱν 
Gen. ἀπορί-ᾱς 
Dat. ἀπορί-ᾱͅ

pl. 
Nom. ἀπορί-αι    
Acc. ἀπορί-ᾱς   
Gen. ἀπορι-ῶν    
Dat. ἀπορί-αις 

37

Declension of noun type 1C: θάλαττᾰ, ἡ 

Type 1C nouns: 

- Show -α in the ending of the nom. and acc. s. (pronounced SHORT);
- Switch to η in the gen. (-ης) and dat. s. (-ῃ: contrast TYPE 1b nouns);
- Usually have a stem ending in σ or a double consonant: but note τόλμ-α-ης
‘daring’ (1c).

θάλαττᾰ, ἡ, ‘sea’ (1c)   

s.
Nom. θάλαττ-ᾰ
Acc. θάλαττ-ᾰν 
Gen. θαλάττ-ης 
Dat. θαλάττ-ῃ

pl. 
Nom. θάλαττ-αι 
Acc. θαλάττ-ᾱς 
Gen. θαλαττ-ῶν 
Dat. θαλάττ-αις

 

38

Declension of noun type 1D: ναύτης, ὁ variant 

- Are all masculine
- Some 1d nouns end in nom. -ης, e.g.  

ναύτης, ὁ, ‘sailor’ (1d) 

s.   
Nom. ναύτη-ς   
Acc. ναύτ-ην   
Gen. ναύτ-ου   
Dat. ναύτ-ῃ   
Voc. ναυ̑τ-ᾰ

pl.
Nom. ναῦτ-αι   
Acc. ναύτ-ᾱς   
Gen. ναυτ-ῶν   
Dat. ναύτ-αις  

39

Declension of noun type 1D: νεᾱνίᾱς, ὁ variant 

- Are all masculine
- Some 1d nouns end in nom. -ας, e.g.  

νεᾱνίᾱς, ὁ, ‘young man’ (1d) 

s.   
Nom. νεᾱνί-ᾱς   
Acc. νεᾱνί-ᾱν   
Gen. νεᾱνί-ου   
Dat. νεᾱνί-ᾳ   
Voc. νεᾱνί-ᾱ   

p.  
Nom. νεᾱνί-αι   
Acc. νεᾱνί-ᾱς   
Gen. νεᾱνι-ῶν   
Dat. νεᾱνί-αις 

40

The sandwich construction:

The men's ship

The events around Salamis 

 

The sandwich construction is the normal order for referring to 'the X belonging to Y: 

- τὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων πλοῖον ‘the of-the men ship’  

- τὰ περὶ Σαλαμῖνα πράγματα, ‘the around Salamis events’ 

But all the following are also acceptable: 

- τὸ πλοῖον τῶν ἀνθρώπων ‘the ship of-the men’
- τὸ πλοῖον τὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ‘the ship the [one] of-the men’ 
- τῶν ἀνθρώπων τὸ πλοῖον ‘of-the men the ship’

41

The repeated article construction: 

 

Whose ship do you see?

The repeated article construction can be used to answer a question such as ‘whose ship do you see?’: 

- τὸ πλοῖον ὁρῶ τὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ‘It is the men’s ship I see.’ (lit. ‘The ship I see the [one] of the men.’) 

42

Article + preposition constructions

The events around Salamis

The men in Salamis 

The women in the Piraeus

In Greek the def. art. + prepositional phrase can be used as an equivalent of a noun: 

- τὰ περὶ Σαλαμῖνα, ‘the [n. pl., i.e.] things/events around Salamis’ 
- οἱ ἐν Σαλαμῖνι, ‘the [m. pl., i.e.] men in Salamis/those in Salamis’ 
- αἱ ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ, ‘the [f. pl., i.e.] women in the Piraeus’

43

Ἀθεναῖος, ὁ

Athenian (2a)

44

ἀναχωρέω

retreat 

45

ἀπορέ-ω

be at a loss; have no resources

46

αὖθις

again

47

βάρβαρος, ὁ

barbarian, foreigner (2a)

48

βέβαιος α (long) ον

secure

49

βραδέως

slowly

50

διά

(+ acc) because of 

51

διέρχομαι (δειλθ-)

go through, (metaphorically) to relate 

52

ἐλευθερίᾱ, ἡ

freedom (1b)

53

ἐλεύθερος α ον 

free

54

ἐλευθερόω

set free 

55

ἑμός

my, mine

56

ἐπειδή

when

57

ἐπέρχομαι (ἐπελθ-)

go against, attack 

58

ἔρχομαι (ἐλθ-)

go, come

59

ἡδέως

with pleasure, happily

60

ἤδη

by now, now, already 

61

ἡσυχάζω

be quiet, keep quiet 

62

ἡσυχίᾱ, ἡ

quiet, peace (1b)

63

θεά (long α), ἡ

goddess (1b)

64

θεά-ομαι

watch, observe 

65

κάλλιστος η ον

most/very fine/beautiful/good

66

λόγος, ὁ

story, tale (2a)

67

μάχομαι, (μαχεσα-)

fight

68

ναυμαχίᾱ, ἡ 

naval battle (1b)

69

νικάω

win, defeat

70

νίκε, ἡ (long ι)

victory 

71

ὁμόνοια, ἡ

harmony, agreement (1b)

72

ὅσος η ον

how great / how many 

73

πίπτο (πεσ-) (long ι) 

fall (as in die)

74

πολέμιοι, οἱ

the enemy (2a)

75

πολέμιος ᾱ ον

hostile, enemy

76

πόλεμος, ὁ

war (2a)

77

πότερον... ἢ...

whether... or.... 

78

προσέρχομαι, (προσελθ-)

advance, go/come towards

79

σιωπά-ω

be silent 

80

σκοπέ-ω

look at, watch (active)

look into, consider, examine (middle)

81

στρατιά, ἡ (long α)

army (1b)

82

τι (no accent)

a, something 

83

τολμάω

dare, be daring, undertake

84

φοβέομαι

fear, be afraid of

85

ψευδῶς

falsley

86

The active, middle and passive voices 

Active: describes what the subject does to the object

Middle: describes what the subject does for or to himself (often does not have an object)

Passive: describes what is done to the subject

87

αεἴδω

sing of; sing 

88

ὀλίγος η ον

small, few

89

οὕτως

in this way

90

ζητέ-ω

seek, seek for

91

οἱ μὲν… οἱ δὲ…

some (of the men)… others… 

92

ἔνθα και ἔνθα

"here and here"; back and forth / this way and that

93

ἡμέρα, ἡ

day (1b)