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Flashcards in Seizures Deck (13):
1

Seizures

discharges from groups of neurons which arise from excessive excitation or loss of inhibition

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Epilepsy

neurological syndrome characterised by recurrent unprovoked seizures

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Types of epilepsy

1. Focal/Partial seizures
2. Generalised seizures

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Definition of focal seizures

seizures are focussed to a particular region of the brain

• Patients tend to hold a level of consciousness during the seizure

• Mainly occur in adults

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Subtypes of focal seizures

1. Simple focal seizures - no impairment od consciousness
2. Complex focal seizures - impairment of consciousness
3. Secondary generalised tonic clonic - seizure spreads from region of origin o the whole brain

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Pathology of focal seziures

• Can be caused by underlying lesion, trauma, tumors

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Symptoms of focal seizures

1. Aura - smell, auditory hallcinations, sensory symptoms

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Generalised seizures

The whole brain, both hemi spheres are involed in the seizure
• Full loss of consciousness

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Subtypes of generalised seizure

• Absence seizure ( petit mal)
•Generalised tonic clonic seizure
• Myoclonic/atonic seizure

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Pathology of generalised seizure

1. idiopathic/genetic/environmental
2. Infection/Meningitis
3. Autoimmune-encephalitis

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Absence seizure

• Loss of awareness and vacant expression for less than 10 secs before normal
• No motor manifestation
• Children are more susceptible

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Generalised tonic clonic

• Initial stiffness of limbs followed by chronic jerking
• Postical phase - period of flaccid irresponsiveness followed by gradual return of consciousness

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Myoclonic seizures/ Atonic seizures

Myoclonic seizures - some or all of the body undergoes sudden jerks less than a sudden
• Atonic seizure - collapse of muscle tone and consciousnee