Sensation Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Human Body & Brain > Sensation Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sensation Vocabulary Deck (27)
Loading flashcards...
1

The adjustment of the pupil of the eye to changes in light intensity. The property by which a sensory neuron relays a decreased frequency of action potentials from a receptor, even though the strength of the stimulus remains constant; the decrease in perception of a sensation over time while the stimulus is still present.

Adaptation

2

Sensory receptor that detects the presence of a specific chemical.

Chemoreceptors

3

A state of wakefulness in which an individual is fully alert, aware, and oriented, partly as a result of feedback between the cerebral cortex and reticular activating system.

Consciousness

4

A sensory receptor for touch; found in dermal papillae, especially in the palms and soles.

Corpuscles of touch

5

A sensory receptor adapted for the reception of stimuli from outside the body.

Exteroceptors

6

Sensory receptor located in blood vessels and viscera that provides information about the body's internal environment. Also called a visceroceptor.

Interoceptors

7

Prolonged, enhanced synaptic transmission that occurs at certain synapses within the hippocampus of the brain; believed to underlie some aspects of memory.

Long-term potentiation

8

Sensory receptor that detects mechanical deformation of the receptor itself or adjacent cells; stimuli so detected include those related to touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception, hearing, equilibrium, and blood pressure.

Mechanoreceptors

9

An encapsulated proprioceptor in a skeletal muscle, consisting of specialized intrafusal muscle fibers and nerve endings; stimulated by changes in length or tension of muscle fibers.

Muscle spindle

10

A sustained, partial contraction of portions of a skeletal or smooth muscle in response to activation of stretch receptors or a baseline level of action potentials in the innervating motor neurons.

Muscle Tone

11

A free (naked) nerve ending that detects painful stimuli.

Nociceptors

12

Receptor in the hypothalamus that is sensitive to changes in blood osmolarity and, in response to high osmolarity (low water concentration), stimulates synthesis and release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

Osmoreceptors

13

The smallest intensity of a painful stimulus at which a person perceives pain. All individuals have the same pain threshold.

Pain threshold

14

Receptor that detects light shining on the retina of the eye.

Photoreceptors

15

Sensory pathways that carry information related to proprioception, fi ne touch, two-point discrimination, pressure, and vibration.

Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway

16

A receptor located in muscles, tendons, joints, or the internal ear (muscle spindles, tendon organs, joint kinesthetic receptors, and hair cells of the vestibular apparatus) that provides information about body position and movements.

Proprioceptors

17

Pain that is felt at a site remote from the place of origin

Referred pain

18

A portion of the reticular formation that has many ascending connections with the cerebral cortex; when this area of the brain stem is active, nerve impulses pass to the thalamus and widespread areas of the cerebral cortex, resulting in generalized alertness or arousal from sleep.

Reticular activation system

19

A state of awareness of external or internal conditions of the body

Sensation

20

Any of the specific sensory entities, such as vision, smell taste, or touch

Sensory modality

21

Sensory (ascending) tract that conveys information up the spinal cord to the thalamus for sensations of pain, temperature, crude touch, and deep pressure.

Spinothalamic tract

22

Slowly adapting touch receptors for fine touch: also called a tactile disc or Merkel disc

Type I cutaneous mechanoreceptors

23

A sensory receptor embedded deeply in the dermis and deeper tissue that detects stretching of skin. Also called a Ruffini corpuscle.

Type II cutaneous mechanoreceptors

24

Total lack of the sense of smell

Anosmia

25

A bipolar neuron with its cell body lying between supporting cells located in the mucous membrane lining the superior portion of each nasal cavity; transducers odors into neural signals.

Olfactory receptors cells

26

A bundle of axons that extends from the olfactory bulb posteriorly to olfactory regions of the cerebral cortex.

Olfactory tract

27

A large, oval structure located bilaterally on either side of the third ventricle, consisting of two masses of gray matter organized into nuclei; main relay center for sensory impulses ascending to the cerebral cortex.

Thalamus