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Bone tissue that contains few spaces between osteons (haversian systems); forms the external portion of all bones and the bulk of the diaphysis (shaft) of long bones; is found immediately deep to the periosteum and external to spongy bone.

Compact bone tissue


Bone tissue that consists of an irregular latticework of thin plates of bone called trabeculae; spaces between trabeculae of some bones are filled with red bone marrow; found inside short, flat, and irregular bones and in the epiphyses (ends) of long bones.

Spongy bone tissue


The shaft of a long bone.



The end of a long bone, usually larger in diameter than the shaft (diaphysis).



The membrane that lines the medullary (marrow) cavity of bones, consisting of osteogenic cells and scattered osteoclasts.



The remnant of the epiphyseal plate in the metaphysis of a long bone.

Epiphyseal line


The hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis of a long bone; site of lengthwise growth of long bones.

Epiphyseal plate


The space within the diaphysis of a bone that contains yellow bone marrow.

Medullary cavity


Stem cell derived from mesenchyme that has mitotic potential and the ability to differentiate into an osteoblast.

Osteogenic cells


The basic unit of structure in adult compact bone, consisting of a central (haversian) canal with its concentrically arranged lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes, and canaliculi.



The membrane that covers bone and consists of connective tissue, osteogenic cells, and osteoblasts; is essential for bone growth, repair, and nutrition.



A highly vascularized connective tissue located in microscopic species between trabeculae of spongy bone tissue.

Red bone marrow


Irregular latticework of thin plates of spongy bone tissue. Fibrous cord of connective tissue serving as supporting fiber by forming a septum extending into an organ from its wall or capsule.



A joint; a point of contact between bones; cartilage and bones, or teeth and bones.



A fully movable or diarthrotic joint in which a synovial (joint) cavity is present between the two articulating bones.

Synovial joint


A synovial joint in which the rounded surface of one bone moves within a cup-shaped depression or socket of another bone, as in the shoulder or hip joint. Also called a spheroid joint.

Ball-and-socket joint


A joint without a synovial (joint) cavity where the articulating bones are held tightly together by cartilage, allowing little or no movement.

Cartilaginous joint


A joint that allows little or no movement, such as a suture, syndesmosis, or interosseous membrane.

Fibrous joints


A synovial joint in which a convex surface of one bone fits into a concave surface of another bone, such as the elbow, knee, ankle, and interphalangeal joints. Also called a ginglymus joint.

Hinge joint


A synovial joint in which a rounded, pointed, or conical surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament, as in the joint between the atlas and axis and between the proximal ends of the radius and ulna. Also called a trochoid joint.

Pivot joint


A synovial joint in which the articular surface of one bone is saddle-snapped and the articular surface of the other bone is shaped like the legs of the rider stirring in the saddle, as in the joint between the trapezium and the metacarpal of the thumb.

Saddle joint