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Flashcards in Short ID Terms (Scranton Test) Deck (36)
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Rape of Nanjing

(according to

-Japanese Army brutally murdered thousands of soldiers and civilians in Nanjing.
-Also known as Nanjing Massacre
-20,000 and 80,000 women were sexually assaulted.


Weimar Republic

-democratic government
-Germany had several major political parties and many minor ones and it caused Weimar Republic to lack power.
-led Germany people to choose Adolf Hitler and Nazi party as government.


November Criminals

-Myth that German army did not lose but were rather betrayed by unpatriotic populace.
-Jews were thought of as unpatriotic backstabbers that caused the loss of the war for Germany.


Munich Peace Conference Appeasement

-The agreement permitting Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland was signed on Sept 29, 1938.
-allowed Hitler to annex part of Czechoslovakia to Germany


Nazi-Soviet Pact

-non-aggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union.
-Britain and France had been trying to arrange a pact with the Soviet Union but were unsuccessful.
-With the Soviet Union now neutral, Britain and France were out of possible powerful European allies.



-German term meaning "lightning war", used to describe Germany's novel military tactics in World War II
-Involved the rapid movement of infantry, tanks, and air-power over large areas.


Battle of Britain

-three month air battle between Germany and Great Britain fought over Britain during World War 2.
-Britain's victory led to the German invasion.


Internment of Japanese-Americans

-putting a person in prison or other kind of detention, generally in wartime.
-WW2 the American government put Japanese-Americans in internment camps, fearing they might be loyal to Japan.



Japanese internment camps in California


Potsdam Conference

-The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union
-Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.


The Dropping of the Atomic Bomb

-President Harry S. Truman, warned by some of his advisers that any attempt to invade Japan would result in horrific American casualties, ordered that the new weapon be used to bring the war to a speedy end.
-the American bomber Enola Gay dropped a five-ton bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima.



-The first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima
-100,00 people died within seconds and thousands for within the next five days.



-second military use of the atomic bomb



-the bomb dropped on Hiroshima


Fat Man

-bomb dropped on nagasaki.
-More powerful than little boy, but less immediate casualties to civilians due to the terrain of Nagasaki.


George Kennan

-authored the "containment doctrine"
-arguing that the Soviet Union was inherently expansionist and had to be stopped, via political and military force, from spreading throughoug the world



-arguing that the Soviet Union was inherently expansionist and had to be stopped, via political and military force, from spreading throughoug the world


Marshall Plan

-massive transfer of aid money to help rebuild postwar Western Europe,


Truman Doctrine

-President Truman's universal pledge of support for any people fighting any communist or communist-inspired threat



National Security Council recommendation to quadruple defense spending and rapidly expand peace-time armed forces to address Cold War tensions


The New Look

Eisenhower FP that emphasized reliance on strategic nuclear weapons to deter potential threats, both conventional and nuclear


Flexible Response

was a defense strategy implemented by JFK in 1961 to address the Kennedy administration's skepticism of Dwight Eisenhower's New Look and its policy


Berlin Wall

-built to divide communist East Germany from democratic West Germany and to keep East Germans from escaping to West Germany.
-After World War II, defeated Germany was divided into four zones, each occupied by Allied forces: the United States, France, Great Britain and the Soviet Union.


Cuban Missile Crisis

A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the “hottest” periods of the cold war.


March on Washington DC (1941)

-protest segregation in the armed forces.
-The hypocrisy behind calls to “defending democracy” from Hitler


A. Philip Randolph

-labor and civil rights leader in the 1940s who led the brotherhood of sleeping car porters


Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC)

-banned “discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin.”
-was established to help enforce the order.


Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

African-American civil rights organization in the United States that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement.


National Assoc for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate race-based discrimination.


Plessy v Ferguson (1896)

It upheld state racial segregation laws for public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".