Flashcards in Shoulder Deck (47)
What is the sternoclavicular joint?
Plane synovial joint formed by medial end of clavicle and manubrium of sternum and 1st costal cartilage. Contains articular disc.
What stabilises the sternoclavicular joint?
Costoclavicular ligaments that attach to clavicle and 1st rib
What is the acromioclavicular joint?
Plane synovial joint located between lateral end of clavicle and the acromion of scapula.
What is the acromioclavicular joint stabilised by?
Weak fibrous capsule is strengthened superiorly by acromioclavicular ligaments and trapezius and deltoid fibres. Mainly by coraco-clavicular joint (suspends weight of upper limb from the clavicle)
What is the scapulothoracic joint?
Bone-muscle-bone between costal surface of scapula, subscapularis ,uscle, serratus anterior and thoracic wall.
What movements are possible at the scapulothoracic joint?
protraction, retraction, elevation, depression and rotation
What produces protraction and lateral rotation of the scapula?
What rotates inferiorly, retracts, elevates and depresses scapula?
What retracts and inferiorly rotates scapula?
Rhomboid major and minor
How is the glenohumeral joint commonly dislocated? Why?
Anteriorly. The coracoacromial ligament stabilises the joint superiorly
What does the fibrocartilagenous glenoid labrum do?
Deepens the glenoid fossa
What stabilises the glenohumeral joint?
Capsule and glenohumerla, coracohumeral and coracoacromial ligaments. Also rotator cuff muscles.
Name the rotator cuff muscles
Teres minor, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, subscaularis
Where are the glenohumeral ligaments?
On the internal surface of the fibrous capsule
Where does the coracohumeral ligament attach?
Coracoid process, anatomical neck of humerus and transverse humeral ligament
Where are the most important cushions in the shoulder?
The subacromial/subdeltoid bursa separate coracoacromial arch and deltoid from supraspinatus tendon and glenohumeral joint
What may pain in the shoulder region be caused by?
Inflammation or tendons or bursa, muscle injury, osteophytes or microtrauma. Could be referred pain from diaphragm or peritoneum (phrenic innervation also C3-5)
Where does the serratus anterior attach?
1-8 ribs to anterior surface of scapula
Where does the pectoralis major attach?
Medial clavicle, maubrium and body of sternum and 1-6 costal cartilages to bicipital groove.
Where does the latisimus dorsi attach?
Spinous processes of lower T, L and S vertebrae to iliac crest. Tendon attaches to bicipital groove.
What innervates the lat dorsi?
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6, 7 &8)
Where does the deltoid attach?
Clavicle, scapula and deltoid tuberosity.
Where does the trapezius attach?
Occipital bone and C7-T12 to the scapula spine and clavicle.
Where does the pectoralis minor attach?
Deep to the pectoralis major, 3-5 ribs and coracoid process.
Where does the teres major attach?
Between lateral border of scapula and bicipital groove (next to pec maj and lar dorsi)
Where does the subscapularis attach and what does it do?
Costal scapula-> lesser tuberosity
Describe the supra and infra spinatus
Dorsal surface of scapula, superior/inferior to spine of scapula, attach to greater tuberosity
Abduction and lateral rotation
Describe teres minor
Dorsal surface of scapulas on lateral border to greater tuberosity
What muscles are involved in abduction of the arm?
Suprspinatus, deltoid at shoulder joint. Trapezius and serratus anterior to get scapula to rotate to bring arm up further