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Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (21)
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1

Functions of the skeleton

– shape and support
– movement
– protection
– blood production

2

Types of Bone and Examples

Long bones – Femur, Ulna, Radius, Tibia
Short bones – Carpals, Phalanges, Tarsals
Irregular bones – Vertebrae, Mandible
Flat bones – Scapula, Pelvis, Cranium

3

What is a joint?

A joint is where two or more bones meet

4

What are the types of joints?

Fixed joints, cartilaginous joints, synovial joints

5

Characteristics and examples of fixed joints (fibrous joints)

No possible movement
Protects organs
Bones held by fibrous connective tissue
Eg cranium

6

Characteristics of cartilaginous joints (slightly moveable)

Bone use cartilage as padding
Only limited movement possible
No joint cavity
Eg Spine

7

Characteristics of synovial joints (freely moveable)

Varying joint construction
Different construction allows different ranges of movement
Movement differs due to joint shape, arrangement of muscle tendons and ligaments
Eg Hip, knee, ankle

8

Types of synovial joints

Ball and socket Joint
Hinge Joint
Pivot Joint
Condyloid Joint
Gliding Joint
Saddle Joint

9

Ball and socket Joint

E.g. Hip and Shoulder
Flexion and Extension
Abduction and Adduction
Rotation

10

Hinge Joint

E.g. Elbow and Knee
Flexion and Extension

11

Pivot Joint, examples and movement

E.g. Neck
Flexion and Extension
Abduction and Adduction
Rotation

12

Condyloid Joint, examples and movement

E.g. Wrist
Flexion and Extension
Abduction and Adduction

13

Gliding Joint, examples and movement

E.g. Vertebra
Carpal bones
Sliding motion

14

Saddle Joint, examples and movement

E.g. Thumb
Flexion and Extension
Abduction and Adduction

15

What are the types of movement?

Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Rotation

16

What is flexion and an example of flexion

Reduction in Joint angle
The bending of a limb
Example: Bending of the knees, ready to jump

17

What is extension and an example of extension

Increase in Joint angle
Straightening of a limb
Example: Straightening of the knees, as you take off to jump

18

What is abduction and an example of abduction

Movement away from the midline of the body
Example: Golf swinging

19

What is adduction and an example of adduction

Movement towards the midline of the body
Example: Golf swinging

20

What is rotation and an example of rotation

Movement around the longitudinal axis
Example: Butterfly stroke – movement of arms

21

What are the connective tissues and their function

Ligament: Connects bone to bone. Bonds of fibre help to keep joins stable and stop any unwanted movement.
Cartilage: Shock absorber. Tough but flexible tissue found at the end of bones.
Tendons: Connects muscle to bone. Very strong, non elastic cords.