Flashcards in Skill Acquisition Deck (112):
What are the characteristics of skill?
A - Accurate
C - Controlled
E - Efficient in terms of energy
F - Fluent
A - Aesthetically pleasing
C - Consistent success
What is meant by:
1. a Discrete skill
2. a Continuous skill
3. a Serial skill
1. When the skill has a distinct beginning and end
2. When the skill DOES NOT have a distinct beginning and end
3. When the skill is made up of a number of discrete elements
A skill that uses large muscle groups
A skill where the rate and timing is under the performers control
A skill where the environment changes
A skill that can easily be broken down into subroutines
Low Organisation skill
A skill that uses small muscle groups
A skill where the environment does not change
A skill that requires high level of cognition
A skill that requires low level of cognition
A skill that is difficult to be broken down into its subroutines
High Organisation skill
A skill where the rate and timing is not under the performers control
Give an example of a Low Organisation skill
Front-crawl swimming stroke as you can do various drills to improve technique
Give an example of a Self-paced skill
Long jump, high jump, shot put
Give an example of a Fine skill
Badminton as there is a small wrist action
Give an example of a Serial skill in relation to a sport
Name the transfer of learning: when one skill aids the learning of another
Give an example of Positive transfer
Throwing a ball in cricket and throwing a javelin
What is meant by Negative transfer of a skill?
When the learning of one skill hinders the learning of another
A badminton player taking part in tennis at school causing him to hold the racket differently is an example of what type of transfer?
When one skill learnt has NO EFFECT on the learning of another
Zero transfer (e.g. swimming and rock climbing)
Bilateral Transfer is...
When a skill learnt can be transferred from a limb on one side of the body to another
Using PIMPER, how can a coach aid positive transfer and limit negative transfer?
P - performer is made aware of transfer potential
I - identify elements that may hinder learning
M- motivate the performer
P - practice technique
E - eliminate bad habits
R - realistic practice sessions
Using ABCD, describe the three methods of practice
WHOLE = ABCD
WHOLE-PART-WHOLE = ABCD...C...ABCD
PROGRESSIVE PART = A...B...AB...C...ABC...D...ABCD
When would Whole practice be used by a performer?
Useful when time is limited and for high organisation skills - allows kinaesthetic awareness
Suitable for Autonomous learners with high levels of fitness and confidence.
Give pro's and con's of Whole-Part-Whole practice?
Pro: learners can work on specific weaknesses, useful for complex skills, beneficial to all types of learners
Con: performer needs to be motivated
How is Progressive Part practice helpful for performers?
Useful for practising dangerous skills, complex skills, serial skills and low organisation skills. However it is very time-consuming and performers need to be patient/motivated
Name the four types of practice
D - distributed
M - massed
V - variable
M - mental
What is the difference between Distributed and Massed practice?
Distributed is when there are short trail periods and long rest periods whereas Massed is long trial periods and short rest
When would Distributed be the most suitable type of practice for a performer?
- When a skill/task is dangerous and COMPLEX.
-The rest allows performers to easily recover in-between trail periods so suitable for GROSS skills
-This practice can benefit performers with low motivation and poor fitness levels (e.g COGNITIVE learners)
- Can be very time consuming
State the advantages and disadvantages of Massed practice
+ CLOSED skills because over-leaning causes a habitual response
+ DISCRETE skills that can easily be repeated
+ Suitable for skills with low level of physical demand
+ SIMPLE skills, little cognition
- Requires high levels of fitness and motivation
- Most suitable for AUTONOMOUS learners
Good for open skills, externally paced skills however potential negative transfer can occur. What type of practice is it?
Give five benefits of Mental Practice?
1. Improves confidence
2. Decreases reaction time
3. Controls arousal levels, prevents over-arousal
4. Can be done with any skill
5. Can be done by any stage of learning
State the stages of learning and use one word to summarise them
Cognitive - beginners
Associative - practising
A type of feedback where information about HOW a task was achieved
Knowledge of performance
A type of feedback where a performer receives information from an outside source (e.g coach)
Which types of feedback are most suitable for a cognitive learner?
Knowledge of Results
What is meant my Intrinsic feedback and which type of learner would receive it most?
When the performer receives information from within the performers proprioceptors and Autonomous learners as they can easily adjust their performance to what their body is telling them and how they feel due to them being 'experts'
Why is Knowledge of Performance and Negative feedback most suitable for autonomous learners and not cognitive learners?
As advanced performers want to receive critical information of what was done incorrectly in order to improve the efficiency of their techniques
Give 5 reasons for plateau?
Lack of challenge
Lack of fitness
Lack of varied practice
Lack of motivation
Limits of coach's knowledge
Give 5 strategies to solve plateau?
1. Reset goals
2. Vary practice sessions
3. Increase fitness of performer
4. Better quality coaching
5. Offer rewards
6. Encourage use of mental rehearsal
What is GESTALT's cognitive theory about Insight Learning?
That the performer must:
1. Have a go at whole task
2. promote an understanding of the task
3. Develop their own tactics
4. Identify their own role in task
5. Allows them to think for themselves
What is the theorist SKINNER in relation to?
Operant Conditioning - Reinforcement to ensure actions are repeated
A pleasant consequence following a desired response to increase the likelihood of it being repeated
A unpleasant consequence following a undesired response to increase the likelihood of it being repeated correctly
Negative Reinforcement (e.g a coach is no longer critical)
A unpleasant consequence following an undesired response to decrease the likelihood of it being repeated
What theory is related to Gestalt?
Cognitive Theory - Insight Learning
Give three ways a coach could use Operant Conditioning to alter behaviour of a performer
1. Manipulate the Environment- use cones for e.g. to receive the desired response
2. Use conditioned games - to encourage a certain behaviour
3. Make tasks easier - to increase success rate
What is the theorist Bandura in relation to in Paper 1?
Observational learning (ARMM)
Using ARMM, what are the four stages of social learning theory? (Observational learning)
A - Attention > demonstration must highlight key area's of skill and attract the performer (interesting)
R - Retention > performer must be able to remember and form a mental image (memorable)
M - Motor Production . performer must be physically capable of re-producing the skill ('have a go')
M- Motivation > performer must be willing to reproduce the skill (use of rewards if needed)
Which theorist invented the idea of Constructivism?
What is Constructivism?
Where an athlete works with a coach or MKO to build their learning
Inter-psychological learning is...
during an athletes early development and is usually influenced by external feedback they are given from a coach or MKO
A type of learning that occurs as development continues and the athlete learns from within/internally and constructs actions based on what they have learnt
What model would cause a performer and a coach to co-construct knowledge to develop skills based on what they need to do next?
Zone of Proximal Development:
1. What can I do?
2. What can I do with help?
3. What can't I do?
Name the four forms of guidance?
1. Visual guidance
2. Verbal guidance
3. Manual guidance (aid by coach/MKO)
4. Mechanical (aid by equipment)
Pro's and Con's of Visual guidance?
+ Performer can easily gain a mental image as they can see subroutines/task
+ Useful for beginners
- Must be accurate (done by a coach), repeated at different angles, clear and within the performer's capabilities
What is Verbal guidance?
Where a technique is explained through description of the key subroutines. It can help a performer remember the key points of a task however it cannot be too complex or too complicated - short & simple
Disadvantages of Manual and Mechanical guidance?
A performer can become too reliant on the assistance meaning overtime a coach should gradually remove aid so a performer receives true kinaesthetic feeling so no bad habits form
What is the benefit and downfall of receiving extrinsic and intrinsic feedback?
+ Spot errors unknown to self, identify how to improve
- reduces chance of kinaesthetic feeling being achieved
+ Easier to modify and change a skill if needed
- Easier to form bad habits, harder to identify faults
What type of feedback is beneficial as you can keep track of progress however if goal not achieved can dishearten performer?
Knowledge of Results
Pro's and Con's of Knowledge of Performance as a type of feedback for a performer?
+ to improve on technique and know if a task was correct
- could potentially distract a performer during a game/match
The sense organs take in information from the sporting environment/display via which receptor systems?
The eyes - vision (e.g. seeing the ball)
The ears - audition (e.g hearing the whistle)
The skin/ muscles movement - proprioception, touch, equilibrium, kinaesthesis (e.g feeling the force applied to the ball)
What is the general equation for the information processing model?
Input > Decision Making > Output > Feedback
What is meant by perception?
interpreting information presented to a performer from the display via the DCR process
What is the DCR process?
D- Detection of the stimuli
C - Comparison of the stimuli to past experiences
R- Recognition of the stimuli
Explain the DCR in relation to a example
Detection the flight of the basketball
Comparison of the basketball flight path to past experiences
Recognition that the basketball ball with bounce
Selective Attention is...
when the relevant stimuli is focused on and the irrelevant stimuli is ignored due to not all information being able to be processed.
Why is the function of Selective Attention important?
-Decision-making is sped up
- Reaction time is improved
- The memory is not overloaded
- so only relevant stimuli is processed by the Central Executive
Give three strategies to improve a performers Selective Attention?
1. Increase the INTENSITY of the stimulus
2. A coach could HIGHLIGHT ESSENTIAL CUES
3. Practice by training with DISTRACTIONS
4. Use MENTAL REHEARSAL as a physical practice
What are the function and features of the Sensory memory within the working memory model?
Function: Sorts information into relevant/irrelevant
Feature: Large, only temporary
What are the function and features of the Central Executive within the working memory model?
Function: Decision of which motor programme to use
Feature: Only small so limited space, temporary
What are the function and features of the Long term Memory within the working memory model?
Function: Past experiences are stored here for future
Feature: Large store, lasts a lifetime
What theorist's invented the Working Memory Model?
Baddeley & Hitch
What is the order of the Working Memory Model?
Input > Sensory memory > Central Executive > LTM
There are two sections that lead off from the Central Executive, what are these?
1. Visuo-Spatial Sketch pad = what you see
2. Phonological Loop = what you hear
What are the two parts of the Phonological Loop?
1. Articulatory control = stores verbal information
2. Phonological store = holds speech-based form info
What is the output from the Information processing model?
The Motor Programme produced = the effectors (muscles) contract to cause the chosen action
When does Feedback occur?
During and after the skill action = performer will receive intrinsic feedback from within
What is Whiting's model called?
Information Processing Model
What is the order of the Information Processing Model?
Input from display > Receptor systems (eyes/ears/skin) > Perceptual Mechanisms > Translatory Mechanisms > Effector Mechanisms > Muscular system > Output data > Feedback data (intrinsic)
What is the purpose of the Episodic Buffer within the Working Memory Model?
The back up store combines the information from the Phonological Loop and the Visuo-spatial sketch Pad temporarily and communicates this to the LTM
A mechanism that picks up sensory information from the display via the DCR process and where Selective Attention occurs
Perceptual Mechanism (1st central mechanism)
A mechanism which uses gathered information to a make a decision and select a motor programme
Translatory Mechanism (2nd central mechanism)
A mechanism where the motor programme is put into action by sending impulses via the nervous system
Effector Mechanism (3rd central mechanism)
What occurs at the muscular system?
Contraction of the skeletal muscles in the human body
Define a Simple Reaction Time
A situation where there is only one stimulus and one possible response
Give an example of a Simple Reaction
A swimmer at the start of a race - the beep is the only stimulus, the only possible response is to dive in
What is the equation for Response Time?
Reaction Time + Movement Time = Response Time
The onset of stimulus to the initiation of the response...
...is Reaction Time
The initiation of response to the the completion of the response...
...is Movement time
Using a swimmer diving off a block at the start of a race, describe Reaction Time and Movement Time
- Reaction Time = from the sound of the beep to pushing off the block
- Movement Time = from pushing off the block to breaking the surface of the water (end of the dive)
What is Choice Reaction Time?
When there is more than one stimulus and more than one possible response in a situation
When is Choice Reaction Time most relevant?
- In team games - many stimuli present (e.g. whistle, ball, crowd)
- Open Skills - changing environment
- Externally-paced skills - reacting to many scenario's
What does Hick's Law state?
The more choices we have the slower we will be at responding. This however will eventually plateau due to the Working Memory having a limited capacity to process stimuli
'Humans can only deal with one piece of information at a time therefore subsequent stimuli must wait whilst the first stimulus is processed' is which hypothesis?
Single Channel Hypothesis
The delay caused by the presence of a second stimulus is called...
the Psychological Refractory Period
A bottlenecking effect of stimuli is when...
the brain receives several stimuli in rapid succession
State six factors affecting Response Time
4. Number of stimuli
5. Predictability of stimuli
How can anticipation of a stimuli speed up response time?
Temporal anticipation and Spatial anticipation
Predicting what will happen in an environment is...
Predicting when a stimulus will occur is...
Give four other strategies to improve Response Time
- Practice reacting to the stimulus (e.g. a gun/beep)
- Improve fitness
- Improve concentration/selective attention/focus
- Mental Rehearsal
- Ensure optimal level of arousal is reached
What theory did Schmidt invent?
Schema Theory - adaption to motor programme according to situation
Give an example of how a person may adapt their motor programme according to the situation
A cricket player practising throwing at different distances in training
What are the four things Schema theory is based on?
1. Initial Conditions - where am I?
2. Response Specification - what do I have to do?
***(Recall Schema (before) ***- initiates movement)
3. Sensory Consequence - what did the action feel like?
4. Response Outcome - what happened?
***Recognition Schema (after) ***- knowledge of performance (3) and knowledge of results (4))
How can a coach aid the development of schema (ability to adapt their motor programme on the situation)?
1. Vary practice conditions
2. Make practice relevant
3. Give frequent feedback
4. More challenging tasks
5. Aware of transfer possibilities
6. Use of slow motion video analysis
Chunking and Chaining are ways to...
Improve a performers Long Term Memory and therefore improve decision making
When information is put into larger units so its easier to remember
When information is linked together so its easier to remember
Chaining (similar to progressive part)
Give an example of Chunking
When a set play can be recalled by a single word