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Flashcards in Sue - The Heart Deck (36):
1

Cardiac Output (Q) =

Stroke Volume (SV) x Heart Rate (HR)

2

The amount of blood pumped out by the ventricle in each contraction

Cardiac Output

3

The amount of blood pumped out by the left ventricle in each contraction

Stroke Volume

4

The number of times the heart beats per minute

Heart Rate

5

During exercise, cardiac output will...

increase until maximum intensity is reached and then it plateau's

6

When someone has a lower resting heart rate below 60 beats per minute

Bradycardia

7

An increase in size and growth of skeletal muscles

Hypertrophy

8

Why does Stroke volume increase while exercise does up to 40-60 % of maximum effort?

As once the performer reaches this point the ventricles do not have as much to fill up with blood due to an increased HR, causing a plateau

9

Explain cardiovascular drift?

When there is an increase in heart rate and a decrease in stroke volume due to prolonged exercise in warm conditions
Caused by reduction of fluid in the blood plasma due to increase in sweating so the blood becomes more viscous and so HR decreases > poor hydration

10

How does the the heart initiate a heart beat?

SAN > Atrial systole (contraction) > AVN > Bundle of His > Bundle branches > Purkinje fibres > Ventricular systole

11

Starlings Law order?

1. Increased VENOUS RETURN (due to veins being squeezed during exercise)
2. Leads to a greater diastolic filling so the cardiac muscle is STRETCHED
3. More powerful force of contraction
4. which increases the EJECTION FRACTION
5. Increase in STROKE VOLUME

12

A stress hormone that is released by the sympathetic nerves and cardiac nerve during exercise

Adrenaline

13

What effect does Adrenaline have?

It stimulates the SAN which results in an increase in both SPEED and FORCE of contraction, thereby increasing cardiac output. More blood is pumped to the working muscles so they can receive more oxygen for the energy they need.

14

A nervous system that stimulates the heart to beat faster

Sympathetic

15

A nervous system that returns the heart to its resting level

Parasympathetic

16

The part of the nervous system that consists of nerve cells that transmit information to and from the CNS

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

17

The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord

Central Nervous System (CNS)

18

Detect an increase in blood CO2

Chemoreceptors

19

Detect an increase in muscle movement

Proprioreceptors

20

Detect a change/decrease in blood pressure

Baroreceptors

21

What do receptors do?

Send impulses to the Medulla Oblongata (brain) which increases the impulses to the SAN via the sympathetic nervous system to increase HR

22

Causes coronary arteries to become blocked or start to narrow by gradual build-up of fatty deposits

Coronary heart disease

23

Puts extra strain on arteries and the heart - can increase the risk of a heart attack

High blood pressure

24

Transports cholesterol in the blood to the tissues and they are linked to an increased risk of heart disease

Known as the 'bad cholesterol'

LDL - low density lipoproteins

25

Transports excess cholesterol back to the liver where it is broken down and lowers risk of developing heart disease

Known as the 'good' cholesterol

HDL - high density lipoproteins

26

When the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off causing damage to brain cells so they start to die

Stroke

27

How can regular exercise reduce the effect on heart disease?

-keeps the heart healthy and more efficient
-lowers LDL and increases HDL
-Can lower blood pressure by up to 5-10mmHg
-aids maintenance of a healthy weight to reduce the risk of stroke by 27%

28

Name the four chambers of the heart?

Left atrium, Left ventricle, Right atrium, Right ventricle

29

What are the two types of valve sin the heart and what are there purpose?

Atrio-ventricular valve (AV valve)
Semi-lunar valve
To prevent back-flow of blood

30

During a game of rugby, describe how the sympathetic pathway controls heart rate during the game?

[4 marks]

1. During exercise proprioreceptors detect an increase in muscle movement
2. production of carbon dioxide
3. stimulates chemoreceptors also
4. Impulses sent tot he medulla oblongata and impulses are stimulated through the sympathetic system
5. to the SAN
6. so HR increases

31

Explain how the increasing level of carbon dioxide in the blood raises heart rate?

1. Detected by chemoreceptors
2. impulse sent to the Medulla Oblongata
3. through the Sympathetic system
4. to the SAN which increases HR

32

Which vein brings dexoygenated blood into the heart from the body?

Vena Cava

33

Which artery takes blood towards the lungs from the heart?

Pulmonary artery

34

Which vein brings oxygenated blood back tot he heart from the lungs?

Pulmonary vein

35

Which artery carries blood away from the heart at high pressures to the essential areas that require it?

Aorta

36

How is maximum heart rate calculated?

220 - age