Flashcards in Sue - Energy Transfer Deck (49):
Name the three types of energy systems, how long they'd last for and the athletes that would use them most
1. ATP-PC system > less than 10s and sprinters
2. Anaerobic Glycolytic > 2-3 min and 400m runner
3. Aerobic system > low intensity for long periods and marathon runners
Explain how energy is provided allowing an athlete to complete a hammer throw?
1. ATP-PC System
2. An anaerobic process
3. Controlling enzyme is creatine kinase
4. Phosphocreatine > phosphate + creatine
5. Releases 1 ATP molecule
6. Aerobic energy is needed for recovery
What are the key points of the ATP-PC system?
Less than 10s
Used by sprinters, short events/bursts, footballers
An anaerobic process
Controlling enzyme is creatine kinase
Phosphocreatine > phosphate + creatine
Releases 1 ATP molecule
Aerobic energy is needed for recovery
Advantage of ATP-PC system?
- ATP can be resynthesized quickly
-PHOSPHOCREATINE stores can be resynthesized quickly - 30s = 50%, 3 mins = 100%)
- No fatiguing bi-products
Disadvantages of the ATP-PC system?
- Stores of PC are limited to under 10s
- Only 1 molecule of ATP produced
- Requires aerobic energy/low intensity exercise to allow replenishment
What are the key points of the Anaerobic Glycolytic system?
2 ATP molecules produced
Occurs in the sarcoplasm
Glucose > pyruvate > lactic acid
High intensity exercise, longer than ATP-PC
Advantage of Anaerobic Glycolytic system?
- ATP can be resynthesized quickly
- Lactic acid can be converted to CO2+H2O through oxidation
- Used for a sprint finish
Disadvantages of the Anaerobic Glycolytic system?
- Lactic acid is a bi-product causing denaturing of enzymes due to increase pH in blood/muscles
- Anaerobic conditions limiting energy released from glycogen
List the stages of the Aerobic system?
2. Krebs Cycle
3. Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
Describe what occurs in Glycolysis?
- Glycogen converted to glucose > pyruvate by the enzyme PFK. Occurs in the Sarcoplasm
Describe what occurs in the Krebs Cycle?
- Pyruvic acid combines with acetyl coenzyme A to form citric acid > oxidised.
-Beta oxidation occurs (fats broken down)
- Occurs in matrix of mitochondria
- CO2 is removed
- Hydrogen ions form and pass onto ETC
- 2 ATP molecules resynthesized
Describe what occurs in the ETC?
-Occurs in the cristae (mitochondria)
-Water is formed
- 34 ATP are re-synthesized
Where does Glycolysis take place?
Where does the Krebs Cycle take place?
Where does the Electron Transport Chain take place?
How many ATP molecules are resynthesized altogether from the Aerobic system?
Advantages of the Aerobic System?
36 ATP produced
No fatiguing bi-products
Lots of glycogen stores that provide energy
Disadvantages of the Aerobic System?
Takes while for enough O2 to become available
Fatty acids require a lot of O2 to be broken down
ADP + Pi
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption - the amount of O2 consumed during recovery above that which is normally consumed at rest
What two components are there during oxygen consumption in recovery?
Fast component and Slow component
What is involved in the fast component of oxygen consumption?
- Restoration of ATP and PC
- Re-saturation of myoglobin with oxygen
- 2-3 litres of oxygen consumed
- Uses 0.5 litres of oxygen
- PC replenishment takes 3 mins for 100%. 30s for 50%
What is involved in the slow component of oxygen consumption?
- Removal of lactic acid through taking in extra O2
- Lactic acid can be:
oxidised to CO2 and water
or converted into glycogen or protein
or lost as sweat/urine
or used as energy to increase heart rate
The amount of oxygen we use to produce ATP is...
When there is not enough oxygen available at the start of exercise to provide all energy (ATP) aerobically
Sub-maximal oxygen deficit
This gives an indication of anaerobic capacity
Maximum oxygen deficit (MAOD)
The type of respiration used by physical activities is known as...
Name four specialist training methods to improve energy systems?
1. Altitude training
2. HIIT (High Intensity Interval Training)
3. Plyometric training (power)
4. SAQ (Speed Agility Quickness)
Give advantages of altitude training
-red blood cells
-concentration of haemoglobin
-blood viscosity and capilliarisation
Give disadvantages of altitude training
> altitude sickness
> intensity has to be reduced to cope with the low partial pressure of oxygen
> benefits can quickly be lost when back at sea level
What is Altitude training and who is it good for?
When athletes train where the partial pressure of O2 is lower than at sea level meaning not as much O2 diffuses into the blood so haemoglobin is not fully saturated. This type of training would be useful for long-distance/stamina based events (e.g. a marathon runner)
What is HIIT training?
Short intervals of maximum intensity exercise followed by a recovery interval of low moderate exercise. uses the anaerobic glycolytic system
What does plyometric training do?
It improves speed and power of an athlete and involves high intensity explosive activities. used by power athletes (e.g. weightlifters, long jumpers)
What are the three phases of plyometric training?
An eccentric contraction occurs first followed by a concentric contraction (uses stored energy to increase force of contraction) which causes stretch shortening cycle
What does SAQ aim to improve? and who would use it?
Aims to improve multi-directional movement through developing the neuromuscular system.
A footballer or rugby player would use this and energy is provided anaerobically
The maximum volume of oxygen that can be taken up and used by the muscles per minute
What structural characteristics help increase a persons VO2 max?
More mitochondria ( to provide ATP)
More myoglobin ( to store O2 in the muscles)
More capilliarisation around the muscles ( greater uptake of O2 via diffusion)
Increase lactate tolerance (aerobic for longer)
What other factors can effect a persons VO2 max?
> Lifestyle = poor diet reduces VO2 max
> Training = aerobic training improves VO2 max
> Age = as we get older (more inefficient) our VO2 max reduces
> Body Composition = high % of body fat reduces VO2 max
Give an example of a VO2 max test?
Multi-stage fitness test, harvard step-test and Coopers 12 min run
Respiratory exchange ratio =
the ratio of CO2 released compared to O2 used by the body. It calculates energy expenditure and provides info about which energy source is being oxidised
How does lactate sampling work?
The lactate produced in the muscles diffuses into the blood and blood lactate levels can be measured
The higher the exercise..................the greater the demand for................ and the faster ............... occurs because when glycogen is broken down ....................into pyruvic acid, lactic acid is formed
Give factors that affect the rate of lactate accumulation?
1. The use of slow or fast twitch fibres as slow twitch produce less lactate (as high aerobic capacity)
2. Rate of lactate removal
3. A respiratory exchange ratio under 1.0 means glycogen becomes preferred fuel and there is greater change of accumulation of lactate
4. Fitness of performer - elite athletes can delay OBLA
The point at which lactic acid rapidly accumulates in the blood
The point when lactate levels go above 4 litres
OBLA (onset blood lactate accumulation)
Average performers may have a threshold that is...............of their VO2 max
Elite performers may have a lactate threshold that is........... of their VO2 max
70,80 or even 90%
what is buffering?
Removal of lactate to consequently have lower lactate levels