Skin Cancers Flashcards Preview

S2.5 Dermatology > Skin Cancers > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin Cancers Deck (22):

What are the broad different types of skin cancer?

Non-melanoma skin cancers (BCC, SCC)
Melanoma skin cancer
Cutaneous Lymphoma


What are the different types of non-melanoma skin cancers and which is most common?

Basal cell carcinoma (70% of non-melanomas)
Squamous cell carcinoma


What are the risk factors for non-melanoma cancers?

UV radiation
Photochemotherapy (PUVA)
Chemical carcinogens
Ionising radiation
Familial cancer syndromes


What are the features/symptoms/signs of BCC?

Slow growing
Locally invasive
Rarely metastasise

- pearly rolled edge
- telangiectasia
- central ulceration
- arborising vessels on dermoscopy
- pigmented or morphoeic


How is BCC treated?

Surgery - excision is gold standard
Curative if fully excised
Mohs surgery

Vismodegib - indicated in locally advanced BCC not suitable for surgery/radiotherapy, or metastatic BCC
- median progression free survival 9.5months


What are the features/symptoms/signs of SCC? Any particular variants?

Usually on sun-exposed sites
Faster growing, tender, scaly/crusted or fleshy growths
Can ulcerate
Can metastasise
Derived from keratinising squamous cells

- SCC variant
- erupts from hair follicles in sun-damaged skin
- grows rapidly, but may shrink after a few months and resolve


How is SCC treated?

Excision +/- radiotherapy
Follow-up if high risk
Concern in immunosuppressed, if >20mm in diameter or 4mm in depth, on ear/nose/lip/eyelid, perineural invasion, poorly differentiated

Surgical excision for keratoacanthoma


What are the risk factors for melanoma skin cancers?

UV radiation
Genetic susceptibility - fair skin, red hair, blue eyes, burn tendency
Familial melanoma and melanoma susceptibility genes


How is melanoma assessed?

- asymmetry, border, colour, diameter, evolution

Major features - change in size, shape, colour
Minor features - diameter >5mm, inflammation, oozing/bleeding, mild itch, altered sensation

Dermoscopy can be used
Sentinel node biopsy


What are the different types of melanoma?

Superficial spreading malignant melanoma
Lentigo maligna melanoma
Nodular melanoma
Acral lentiginous melanoma/subungal melanoma
Ocular melanoma


How is melanoma treated?

Urgent surgical excision - depends on subtype, Breslow thickness
Wide local excision
Regular follow-up
Primary/secondary prevention


What are the biologic treatments for metastatic melanoma?

Ipilimumab - CTLA-4
Pembrolizumab - PD-1 receptor
Vemufarenib/Dabrafenib - BRAF


What is cutaneous lymphoma?

Secondary cutaneous disease from systemic/nodal involvement OR
Primary cutaneous disease of abnormal neoplastic proliferation of lymphocytes in cells


What are the different types of primary cutaneous lymphoma and which is more common?

Cutaneous T Cell lymphoma - 65%
Cutaneous B Cell lymphoma - 20%


What are the different subtypes of cutaneous T cell lymphoma and which are the most important?

Mycosis Fungoides + variants
Sezary syndrome
CD30+ immunoproliferative disorders
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma
Cutaneous CD4+ lymphoma
Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma


What is mycosis fungoides and its appearance?

Most common CTCL - accounts for 50% of primary lymphomas
Patch - flat, red, dry, oval lesions, usually on covered sites - may resolve or progress
Can become plaques - thickened, itchy patches

Can become tumour - large irregular lumps that may ulcerate - more likely to have metastatic spread


What investigations are done for mycosis fungoides?

Bloods for sezary cells
CT for staging


What are the signs/symptoms of sezary syndrome?

Red-man syndrome
CTCL affecting entire skin of body
- skin thickened, scaly, red, very itchy

Sezary cells in blood
Atypical T cells
Lymph node involvement


What are the treatments for mycosis fungoides/sezary syndrome?

Topical steroids
Localised radiotherapy
Low dose methotrexate
Total skin electron beam therapy
Extracorporeal photophoresis
Bone marrow transplant


What is total skin electron beam therapy?

Type of radiotherapy
Delivers radiation primarily to superficial layers e.g. epidermis and dermis, sparing deeper organs/tissues


How does extracorporeal photophoresis work?

1. Patients blood drawn and leucocytes collected
2. Collected white cells mixed with psoralen which makes the T cells sensitive to UVA
3. UVA exposure, damaging diseased cells
4. Treated cells re-infused back to patient


How are cutaneous metastases managed? What are the common origins?

Treat underlying malignancy
Local excision
Localised radiotherapy
Symptomatic treatments

Can be secondary to primary skin malignancy such as melanoma, or due to primary solid organ malignany (commonly breast, colon, lung)