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Flashcards in Skull Deck (43):
1

What two divisions can the skull be divided into?

- cranial skeleton and facial skeleton
- facial skeleton includes the mandible

2

What three layers make up the cranial skeletal bones?

- external table of compact bone
- diploe (middle spongy layer)
- internal table of compact bone

3

What is the a covering AND lining of the skull called?

- periostium

4

What is the outer later (the covering) of the Periosteum called? What about the inner layer (the lining)?

- outer layer = pericranium
- inner layer = endocranium

5

Which 8 bones make up the cranial cavity?

- frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, temporal (2x), and parietal (2x)

6

Sutures

- immovable joints between most of the bones of the skull

7

Fontanelles

- the gaps between the bones of the skull in a newborn
- these will eventually form sutures

8

What is a persistent frontal suture called?

- metopic suture
- normally, when the frontal bones fuse during childhood, they leave no trace of a suture

9

In the anatomical position, what horizontal plane lines up the lower margins of the orbits and the upper margins of the external acoustic meatus?

- the orbitomeatal plane

10

What is the flattish part of the temporal bone called?

- squamous temporal
- it is on the external part of the skull

11

What is located at the start of the zygomatic arch, just in front of the mandibular fossa?

- the tubercle of the root of the zygoma

12

Which joint is associated with the tubercle of the root of the zygoma?

- the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

13

Which part of the temporal bone makes up the external acoustic meatus?

- the tympanic part

14

What is the top part of the skull called? (The part that is often removable in many models)

- the calvaria or the calvarium

15

Which bones make up the anterior cranial fossa?

- frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones

16

What passes through the cribriform plates of the ethmoid bone?

- the olfactory nerves (cranial nerve 1)

17

Which bones make up the middle cranial fossa?

- the sphenoid and temporal bones

18

What lies in the sella turcica?

- the pituitary gland

19

What four projections surround the sella turcica?

- the clinoid processes (2 anterior and 2 posterior)

20

What lies between the two anterior clinoid processes?

- the chiasmatic groove (for the optic chiasma)

21

The sella turcica actually encompasses the recess AND the four clinoid processes; what is the name of the actual recess itself?

- the hypophysial fossa
- (because the pituitary gland is also known as the hypophysis)

22

Which bones make up the posterior cranial fossa?

- the sphenoid, temporal, parietal, and occipital bones

23

Which parts of the brain are housed in the posterior cranial fossa?

- the hindbrain (cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata)

24

The inferior orbital fissure opens into what area?

- the infratemporal fossa

25

How many processes does the zygomatic bone have? What are they?

- three processes
- frontal, temporal, and maxillary

26

Palatine Process; What does it form?

- the portion of the maxilla that joins two maxilla bones
- it helps form the hard palate

27

What is the rim of the maxilla that carries the teeth of the upper jaw?

- the alveolar process

28

What passes through the infraorbital foramen?

- the infraorbital nerve and artery

29

T or F: the nasal conchae are separate bones from the ethmoid bone.

- true and false!
- the superior and middle conchae are part of the ethmoid bone, but the inferior conchae is separate

30

What lies beneath the superior conchae/turbinate? The middle conchae/turbinate? The inferior conchae/turbinate?

- the superior meatus
- the middle meatus
- the inferior meatus

31

Which bones makes up the hard palate?

- the maxilla's palatine processes
- the palatine bones

32

Lingula

- a small tongue of bone of the mandible that "guards" the mandibular foramen

33

The mylohyoid (the main muscle of the floor of the mouth) attaches to what part of the mandible?

- the mylohyoid line/groove

34

Alveolar Margin

- the part of the mandible that holds the teeth of the lower jaw
- (don't get confused with the maxilla's alveolar process which holds the teeth of the upper jaw)

35

What passes through the hypoglossal foramen/canals?

- the hypoglossal nerves (cranial nerve XII)

36

What passes through the jugular foramen?

- the jugular vein and cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal nerve), X (vagus nerve), and XI (accessory nerve)

37

What passes through the stylomastoid foramen?

- facial nerve (cranial nerve VII)

38

What passes through the carotid canal?

- the internal carotid artery

39

What passes through the foramen lacerum?

- no major structures actually pass through the foramen lacerum
- the internal carotid artery passes across the top of the foramen

40

What passes through the foramen spinosum?

- the middle meningeal artery passes through INTO the skull

41

What passes through the optic canals?

- the optic nerves (cranial nerve II)

42

What passes through the internal acoustic meatus?

- the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII) and the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII)

43

List all the Cranial Nerves and the foramina they pass through.

- cribriform plate: olfactory nerve (I)
- optic canal: optic nerve (II)
- superior orbital fissure: oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducans nerve (VI)
- trigeminal nerve (V) (a branch of the trigeminal ganglion; does not pass through a foramen; other branches of the ganglion pass through the foramen rotundum and foramen ovale)
- internal acoustic meatus: facial nerve (VII), auditory/vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
- jugular foramen: glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), spinal accessory nerve (XI)
- hypoglossal canal: hypoglossal nerve (XII)