Flashcards in Upper Respiratory Tract and Ear Deck (35):
What are the five major cartilages that make up the larynx?
- circoid, thyroid, epiglottis, and (paired) arytenoids
What is the wide, posterior part of the cricoid cartilage called?
- the lamina of the cricoid
What is each side of the thyroid cartilage known as?
- the lamina of the thyroid cartilage
What projects forward from each arytenoid cartilage? What about laterally?
- forward: each has a vocal process
- lateral: each has a muscular process
the arytenoids articulate with the cricoid via _______; the thyroid cartilage articulates with the cricoid via _______; these 4 joints are ____________ and are all cartilage-to-cartilage joints.
- circoarytenoid pivot joints (each arytenoid has one)
- cricothyroid joints (2 of these)
- all 4 are true synovial joints
The cricothyroid muscles do what?
- they tilt the thyroid cartilage forwards on the cricoid, tensing the vocal cords
Which muscles are found on the posterior of the cricoid cartilage? What do they do?
- the two posterior cricoarytenoid muscles
- they pull in the arytenoids' muscular processes, causing abduction of the vocal cords
What are the ONLY abductors of the vocal cords?
- the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles
What do the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles do?
- they adduct the vocal cords
What is the band of muscle that runs between the arytenoids? What does it do?
- the transverse arytenoid muscle
- it pulls the two arytenoids together, adducting the vocal cords
What encloses the epiglottis?
- a mucous membrane known as the aryepiglottis folds
Which muscles run along each side of the aryepiglottis folds (superficial to the membrane)? What do they do?
- the aryepiglottic muscles
- they pull the epiglottis closed, closing the laryngeal inlet (the aditus)
What is the opening/inlet of the larynx called?
- the (laryngeal) aditus
All of the larynx's muscles except for the _________ are supplied by which nerve?
- the recurrent laryngeal nerve is the motor supply of all the muscles except for the cricothyroid muscles
The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of which nerve?
- the vagus nerve
The cricothyroid muscles get their motor supply from which nerve? What does it branch from?
- the external laryngeal nerve
- it is also a branch of the vagus nerve
The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides sensation to the larynx ABOVE/BELOW the vocal folds.
- BELOW this level
- (don't forget this nerve is also the motor supply for all the muscles except the cricothyroid muscles)
Which nerve provides sensation to the larynx above the level of the vocal folds?
- the inernal laryngeal nerve
- (it is also a branch of the vagus nerve)
What are the three regions of the pharynx?
- the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
The palatine tonsils are located between which two folds of mucosa?
- between the palatoglossal arch (anterior) and the palatopharyngeal arch (posterior) in the nasopharynx and underneath the soft palate
What is found close to the opening of each eustachian tube in the nasopharynx of children?
- the nasopharyngeal tonisls (AKA the adenoids)
Which five bones have the air-containing sinuses (the paranasal air sinuses)?
- the maxilla (x2), the frontal, the ethmoid, and the sphenoid bones
How do the paranasal air sinuses communicate with the nasopharynx?
- via openings called ostia
What do we mean when we call the ears "vestibulocochlear" organs?
- it means they are involved in both hearing and equilibrium
What comprises the external ear?
- the auricle (w/ helix and tragus), the external acoustic meatus, and the tympanic membrane (which separates the external and middle ears)
What comprises the middle ear?
- the three auditory ossicles in the tympanic cavity
- it is filled with air
- this is where the eustachian opens into
What comprises the inner ear?
- the labyrinth (consists of the cochlea and semicircular canals)
- it is filled with fluid
What are the three auditory ossicles?
- the malleus, incus, and stapes
- muscle attached to the handle of the malleus in the middle ear
- dampens loud sounds
Which muscle attaches to the stapes and helps dampen loud sounds?
- the stapedius
T or F: the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) supplies both the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles in the middle ear.
- the trigeminal supplies the tensor tympani, but the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) supplies the stapedius
The oval window (also known as ________ ) lies ABOVE/BELOW the round window (also known as ________ )
- oval window: fenestra vestibuli
- round window: fenestra cochleae
- oval window lies above the round window
The floor of the middle ear (tympanic cavity) lies directly above the:
- jugular foramen
- (this is why we can hear blood flow when our ear is lying on a pillow at night)
What part of the malleus connects to the tympanic membrane?
- the handle