Flashcards in Mouth to Stomach Deck (22):
What passes through the infraorbital foramen?
- the infraorbital nerve and artery
What is the specialized connective tissue of the teeth called? Which three calcified tissues cover this?
- the pulp
- covered by the dentine, enamel, and cementum
How many primary teeth are in an child? How many secondary (AKA permanent) teeth in an adult?
- 20 primary (child)
- 32 secondary (adult)
There are 32 teeth in the adult, 8 in each quadrant. Name these 8 teeth.
- 2 incisors (1 central, 1 lateral)
- 1 canine
- 2 premolars
- 3 molars (the 3rd molar may or may not erupt; it's the wisdom tooth)
- (note that the parotid ducts empty near the upper 2nd molars)
What level does the hyoid bone lie at? What projects from the hyoid bone's central body?
- the C3 vertebrae
- 2 greater horns/cornu and 2 lesser horns/cornu project from the hyoid's central body
Name the muscle around the mouth that acts as a "sphincter" for the mouth.
- the orbicularis oris
Name the cheek muscle.
- the buccinator
Which muscles are involved in mastication (by moving the mandible)?
- the temporalis, masseter, lateral pterygoid, and medial pterygoid muscles
Which general tongue muscles change the shape of the tongue? Which change the position?
- the intrinsic tongue muscles change the shape
- the extrinsic tongue muscles change the position
Name the 4 main extrinsic tongue muscles.
- the genioglossus (from the mandible, mid-line), hyoglossus (2x), styloglossus (2x), and palatoglossus (2x) muscles
Which three circular muscles make up the pharynx? Why is "circular" not a great description for these muscles? Which three vertical muscles make up the pharynx?
- circular: superior, middle, and inferior constrictor muscles; they are open anteriorly, and are therefore not complete circular muscles
- vertical: - the stylopharyngeus, palatopharyngeus, and salpingopharyngeus (from the auditory tube) muscles
Which nerves supply the pharynx? Together they form the ________ plexus.
- the vagus (X) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves; these form the pharyngeal plexus
What is the muscle that acts as a sphincter at the top of the esophagus? What is is actually a part of? What is the relatively weak spot just above this muscle? What may be found here?
- the cricopharyngeus muscle; it is actually the lowermost fibres of the inferior constrictor muscle of the pharynx
- Killian's area is a weak spot just above this muscle
- Zenker's diverticulum (a pharyngeal pouch) may be found here
The esophagus is BEHIND/IN FRONT OF the descending aorta.
- esophagus is in front of the descending aorta
- (and it is behind the trachea)
What is the aperture where the esophagus passes through the diaphragm known as? Which crus is it formed by?
- the esophageal hiatus
- formed by the right crus, despite the hiatus being to the left of the midline
What is the cardia?
- the gastro-esophageal junction
What are the four main arterial supplies to the stomach? Where do they originate from?
- the left gastric artery (from the celiac trunk)
- the right gastric artery (from the common hepatic artery)
- the left gastroepiploic artery (from the splenic artery)
- the right gastroepiploic artery (from the gastroduodenal artery, which comes from the common hepatic artery)
- the gastric arteries supply the lesser curvature; the gastroepiploic arteries supply the greater
- (we also have the short gastric arteries, which also arise from the splenic artery and supply the fundus)
What is another name for the lesser omentum?
- the gastrohepatic ligament
What is the part of the greater omentum between the stomach and spleen called?
- the gastrosplenic ligament
What forms from the ventral mesogastrium? What forms from the dorsal mesogastrium?
- ventral: the lesser omentum and the liver (and its ligaments)
- dorsal: the spleen, the greater omentum, the spleno-renal ligament, etc.
What is the opening in the right edge of the lesser omentum called? What maneuver involves the this opening and when is it used?
- the epiploic foramen (AKA the foramen of Winslow)
- the Pringle Maneuver
- it's used when there is severe bleeding from the liver during abdominal surgery to gain temporary control of the massive hemorrhage