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Flashcards in Mouth to Stomach Deck (22):
1

What passes through the infraorbital foramen?

- the infraorbital nerve and artery

2

What is the specialized connective tissue of the teeth called? Which three calcified tissues cover this?

- the pulp
- covered by the dentine, enamel, and cementum

3

How many primary teeth are in an child? How many secondary (AKA permanent) teeth in an adult?

- 20 primary (child)
- 32 secondary (adult)

4

There are 32 teeth in the adult, 8 in each quadrant. Name these 8 teeth.

- 2 incisors (1 central, 1 lateral)
- 1 canine
- 2 premolars
- 3 molars (the 3rd molar may or may not erupt; it's the wisdom tooth)
- (note that the parotid ducts empty near the upper 2nd molars)

5

What level does the hyoid bone lie at? What projects from the hyoid bone's central body?

- the C3 vertebrae
- 2 greater horns/cornu and 2 lesser horns/cornu project from the hyoid's central body

6

Name the muscle around the mouth that acts as a "sphincter" for the mouth.

- the orbicularis oris

7

Name the cheek muscle.

- the buccinator

8

Which muscles are involved in mastication (by moving the mandible)?

- the temporalis, masseter, lateral pterygoid, and medial pterygoid muscles

9

Which general tongue muscles change the shape of the tongue? Which change the position?

- the intrinsic tongue muscles change the shape
- the extrinsic tongue muscles change the position

10

Name the 4 main extrinsic tongue muscles.

- the genioglossus (from the mandible, mid-line), hyoglossus (2x), styloglossus (2x), and palatoglossus (2x) muscles

11

Which three circular muscles make up the pharynx? Why is "circular" not a great description for these muscles? Which three vertical muscles make up the pharynx?

- circular: superior, middle, and inferior constrictor muscles; they are open anteriorly, and are therefore not complete circular muscles
- vertical: - the stylopharyngeus, palatopharyngeus, and salpingopharyngeus (from the auditory tube) muscles

12

Which nerves supply the pharynx? Together they form the ________ plexus.

- the vagus (X) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves; these form the pharyngeal plexus

13

What is the muscle that acts as a sphincter at the top of the esophagus? What is is actually a part of? What is the relatively weak spot just above this muscle? What may be found here?

- the cricopharyngeus muscle; it is actually the lowermost fibres of the inferior constrictor muscle of the pharynx
- Killian's area is a weak spot just above this muscle
- Zenker's diverticulum (a pharyngeal pouch) may be found here

14

The esophagus is BEHIND/IN FRONT OF the descending aorta.

- esophagus is in front of the descending aorta
- (and it is behind the trachea)

15

What is the aperture where the esophagus passes through the diaphragm known as? Which crus is it formed by?

- the esophageal hiatus
- formed by the right crus, despite the hiatus being to the left of the midline

16

What is the cardia?

- the gastro-esophageal junction

17

What are the four main arterial supplies to the stomach? Where do they originate from?

- the left gastric artery (from the celiac trunk)
- the right gastric artery (from the common hepatic artery)
- the left gastroepiploic artery (from the splenic artery)
- the right gastroepiploic artery (from the gastroduodenal artery, which comes from the common hepatic artery)
- the gastric arteries supply the lesser curvature; the gastroepiploic arteries supply the greater
- (we also have the short gastric arteries, which also arise from the splenic artery and supply the fundus)

18

What is another name for the lesser omentum?

- the gastrohepatic ligament

19

What is the part of the greater omentum between the stomach and spleen called?

- the gastrosplenic ligament

20

What forms from the ventral mesogastrium? What forms from the dorsal mesogastrium?

- ventral: the lesser omentum and the liver (and its ligaments)
- dorsal: the spleen, the greater omentum, the spleno-renal ligament, etc.

21

What is the opening in the right edge of the lesser omentum called? What maneuver involves the this opening and when is it used?

- the epiploic foramen (AKA the foramen of Winslow)
- the Pringle Maneuver
- it's used when there is severe bleeding from the liver during abdominal surgery to gain temporary control of the massive hemorrhage

22

What is the collection system for the lymphatic drainage of the stomach and upper small intestine called? Where does this system drain to?

- the cisterna chyli (the lowermost, dilated part of the thoracic duct)
- drains into the thoracic duct, where it eventually re-enters the venous system in the neck area