Sleep and Insomnia Flashcards Preview

Health Psychology > Sleep and Insomnia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sleep and Insomnia Deck (22)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

what are alpha rhythms

A

regular pattern, quiet wakefulness eyes closed

2
Q

what is k-complex

A

slow wave sleep / deep sleep waves

3
Q

what is REM (rapid eye movement)

A

wakeful like sleep and dreaming

4
Q

what times do we experience deepest sleep

A

between 11 to 3 am / earlier in the night

5
Q

how do sleep cycles work (how many and how long)

A

there are 4 cycles of the sleep stages, each last 60-90 minutes

6
Q

what are the sleep stages

A

REM (24% of sleep), light non-rem ( theta waves, sleep spindles → more sleep spindles = less awake), Deep sleep / slow wave sleep

7
Q

what happens to sleep as we age

A

reduction of slow wave sleep + circadian changes → more daytime sleep

8
Q

explain process S and process C and their interaction with sleep

A

Process S is the sleep drive / homeostatic process, it accumulates sleep pressure over the day. Process C is the circadian rhythm and wake drive. Greatest urge to sleep happens when there is the greatest distance between process s and process C

9
Q

why do we sleep

A

sleep acts as restorative state (decrease in brain glucose metabolism), good for memory consolidations

10
Q

what is the connection between sleep and depressive episodes

A

first onset/ recurrence of insomnia predicts / precedes development of depressive episodes (can also contribute to relapse of depression)

11
Q

Insomnia is associated with increased risk for what?

A

hypertension and metabolic disorders

12
Q

what are zeitgebers

A

natural elements which help us stay aligned with out circadian rhythm (food, sunlight)

13
Q

what is the psychobiological inhibition model of insomnia

A

impaired inhibition prevents person from falling asleep → develops hypervigilance of deactivation of arousal → sleep strategies only promote arousal

14
Q

conditioning model of insomnia (Bootzin)

A

bedroom environment becomes less associated with sleep and more with cognitive arousal and negative emotion → failure to establish discriminative stimuli for sleep

15
Q

what are the three main issues related with insomnia

A

poor chronological timing (over sleep to catch of on missed sleep)

sleep state misperception (overestimating how much their sleep has been disturbed)

cognitive hyperarousal (overactive thoughts and anxiety related to sleep)

16
Q

what is the cognitive behavioural therapy model for insomnia

A

suggests that arousal, dysfunctional cognitions, maladaptive habits and consequences all revolve in a cycle to maintain insomnia

17
Q

what is the 3 P model of insomnia

A

Predisposition factors (biological, psychological and social traits)

Precipitation factors (illness and life events)

Perpetuating factors (excessive time in bed, conditioning) work in waves to maining and evolve insomnia

Precipitating factors more commonly cause insomnia in onset and short term insomnia, while perpetuating factors cause chronic insomnia

18
Q

what are treatment options for insomnia

A

CBT to target maintaining factors, sleep diaries, intervention

19
Q

what are the main interventions for insomnia

A

stimulus control, sleep restriction, relaxation training, sleep hygiene education

20
Q

what are the goals of stimulus control of sleep

A

re-associate sleep stimuli with drowsiness and sleep by →

going to bed only when sleepy (more time in bed = heightened arousal)

get out of bed after not being able to sleep for 15 min ( engage in quiet activity until sleepy again)

arise at the same time every morning (establish routine)

no naps during the day (promotes irregular circadian rhythm)

21
Q

what are the goals of sleep restriction

A

limiting the amount of time spent in bed to only time spent sleeping and wake up at same time not matter how much the person has actually slept

22
Q

what are the 5 main target of cognitive therapy for sleep

A

(1) misconception of the causes, believing its due to uncontrollable factors

(2) misattribution and amplification of the consequences

(3) unrealistic sleep expectations

(4) performance anxiety and learned helplessness

(5) faulty beliefs about sleep promoting practices